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very common disease known as Diabetes

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America and around the world.


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many years and throughout history there have been various types of diseases
spread throughout the world that affect our health, some more serious than
others. In today’s society, especially in the United States of America it seems
as though Diabetes is looked as a very common problem in the healthcare system
found among various individuals of all ages. There are two types of Diabetes
Type I and Type II. Type I Diabetes is usually found in children and young
adults in which the pancreas produces little to no insulin in order for Glucose
to enter the cells and produce ATP (Energy).  Type II diabetes on the other hand is where
the Pancreas does not manage its insulin levels very well called Insulin
Resistance and eventually cannot keep up with production which results in a
sugar build up in the blood instead. This build up of glucose in the body is
called Hyperglycemia, as it is unable to use the glucose as energy.

The cells in our
bodies need energy (ATP) to remain active to perform basic functions and
survive, which is received through food. As we ingest food into our mouths it
needs to be broken down into absorbable units that the body can use to fuel the
cells that include Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, Lipids, and Proteins. The body
immediately begins to send signals to begin the enzyme breakdown process of
glucose, which is one of the main carbohydrates found in food used for ATP. The
Pancreas is part of the breakdown process in which it produces and releases
insulin. Insulin is used to lower the sugar level in the blood as it is raised
by the intake of food. Type I Diabetes affects this process by not releasing
the appropriate amount of insulin leading to the aiding of insulin injections
to reduce blood sugar levels.


Type II Diabetes affects this
process by producing inappropriate amounts of insulin, as the liver cannot
recognize the amount that is currently in the body. The liver serves as insulin
storage as well as producing it when necessary. If there is not a certain
amount of insulin production in the body it can release free fatty acids from
storage by a process called Ketoacidosis which results from the liver breaking
down fats into Ketones that can be toxic in large amounts.

The causes of Type
I diabetes can include many factors such as genetics, viruses, environmental
factors, or the most common in which the body’s immune system responds to fight
bacteria and other viruses attacks the insulin producing cells in the Pancreas
called Islet Beta cells. On a cellular level this autoimmune disease is
characterized essentially by mediated T cells which are lymphocytes produced
or processed by the thymus gland and participate in the active auto immune
response. These T cells then go on to attack the insulin secreting Beta calls
from the Pancreas. As a result this leads to insulin depletion, which then
turns into hyperglycemia due to the hepatic overproduction of glucose and
decreased cellular uptake by circulation. The absence of insulin then turns to
an increase in the breakdown of fats that results in an overproduction of
ketones. Ketones are byproducts of the body by breaking down fat for
energy that occurs when carbohydrate intake is low through beta-oxidation, the
process of this is known as Ketosis. This process can also occur during
starvation, fasting, and prolonged exercise. If Ketosis is left untreated it
can gradually lead to depression of the nervous system eventually leading up to


            As previously stated Type II
Diabetes is the abnormal secretion and impairment of insulin secretion by
Insulin Resistance. This suppresses the defective hepatic glucose output. The
glucose-lowering action of insulin tends to lead an increase in the blood
glucose concentration that promotes insulin secretion that leads to hyperinsulinemia.
At the beginning, hyperinsulinemia is able to overcome the insulin resistance
but gradually degrades over time. When insulin secretion of the pancreas and
liver is outweighed along with miscommunication among the cells, insulin
resistance outweighs it and the body turns into a hyperglycemic state. At the
molecular level the defective post receptor insulin signal is the main feature
in insulin resistance. The metabolic insulin actions are affected as well as
the fatty acids and broken beta cells leading to increased glucose levels in
the blood. Insulin resistance can have a higher affect in people who are obese.
People with insulin resistance often have conditions such as high blood
glucose, extra fat around the waist, high blood pressure, as well as high
cholesterol and triglycerides.

Although there is
no cure found for Type I diabetes, all users must use insulin injection in
order to lower their glucose levels. Frequent blood sugar monitoring is
essential for people with this disease as they should meet requirements in
their blood ranging from 80 and 130 mg/dL before meals and no higher than
180mg/dL after meals in a 2 hour period. Regular exercise as well as a healthy
diet should also be implemented as it is crucial to having blood sugar levels
in range, which can be affected by a change in any of these factors.  Maintaining ones weight as well as protein,
carb, and fat counting also helps to live up to these optimal conditions.


In September of 2016,
the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first artificial pancreas
for people with Type 1 diabetes of ages 14 and older. It’s also called
closed-loop insulin delivery. The implanted device links a continuous glucose monitor
that checks the blood sugar levels every five minutes to an insulin pump. The
device automatically delivers the correct amount of insulin as needed by the
insulin monitor. Potential future treatments include a Pancreas transplant that
would no longer require insulin to be administered by injections. These
transplants aren’t always successful and very risky, but because the risks can
be more dangerous than the diabetes itself, pancreas transplants are mainly
reserved for those with very difficult-to-manage diabetes. Islet cell
transplantation is also a future treatment in which researchers experiment with
islet cell transplantation, that provides new insulin-producing cells from a
pancreas donor. Though the experimental procedure had some problems in the
past, better methods and drugs prevent islet cell rejection and have improved
its future chances of becoming a successful treatment.

Unlike Type 1
diabetes Type II diabetes can be controlled better with lifestyle changes to
normal glucose levels for a longer period in order to prevent complications
further with time. These lifestyle changes include healthy diet eating along
with physical activity, blood sugar monitoring, and preventative medication
prescribed by a doctor in some circumstances. These treatments must be followed
in order to live healthy lives and optimal conditions.



In conclusion,
Diabetes in general is a very difficult disease to manage and live with but it
is possible with current treatments as well as healthy lifestyle changes in
order to reduce the risk of further complications in life.  Though there is no cure found we can only
hope that the future holds a cure to this disease that can get rid of the
burden of the people who live with this day by day in a constant struggle and
achieve a peak point toward optimal health.

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