“Be the change you want to see in the world. ” Mahatma Gandhi whose original name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in India at Porbandar in Gujarat State on 2nd October, 1869. He was born in a very orthodox family who had good relations with the rulers of Kathiawad. He completed his law in University College, London in the year of 1869, after that he came back to India and practised law in Bombay which went in vein. In another two years, he started working for Indian firm which had business in South Africa as a legal advisor in Durban.
But the way he was treated in South Africa made him understand that the Indian immigrants there were treated as members of inferior race and were not provided any civil liberties and political rights. So he started his first struggle in South Africa for the rights of Indian immigrants. He stayed in South Africa for another 20 years, in these years he was sent to prison so many times. He was humiliated and attacked by racial whites of South Africa that made him to teach the policy of passive resistance and non-cooperation.
He was inspired by Great Russian writer LEO TOLSTOY; He was also inspired by teachings of JESUS CHRIST and nineteenth century American writer Hendry David Thoreau’s epic essay “Civil Disobedience”. But he had his own way of calling it “SATYAGRAHA” in Sanskrit in means Truth and Firmness. During the Boer war, Gandhi worked and commanded a Red Cross unit and Ambulance corps for the British army amidst fighting for Indian rights.
He created a cooperative colony for Indian immigrants called Tolstoy farm in Durban in the year of 1910. The government of South Africa accepted the demands of Gandhi and removed the poll tax for Indian immigrants, recognised Indian marriages, and gave lots of rights. With this his struggle South Africa came to a end and he returned to India. Gandhi had lot to do in India than in South Africa, Gandhi became the face of freedom struggle in India. His non violent policy of SATYAGRAHA brought in lot of followers.
When a campaign against British governments Rowaltt acts became a massacre of Indians in the city of Amritsar, Punjab by the soldiers of British Government, the act of Gandhi’s satyagraha and non cooperation movement flourished and made lots of Indian civil servants to resign their jobs, government offices , courts were boycotted. Lots of Indians marched to the street and blocked even when they were hit by the police. That made the British government to arrest Gandhi, but was released soon by the mounting public pressure.
Gandhi then started Swaraj movement which means self governance in Sanskrit, in which he made the Indians to boycott British goods for economic independence of India. The Swaraj movement stopped the exploitation of Indian home industries by the English business men. Gandhi revived the Indian cottage industries. Gandhi was accepted as international figure of India’s struggle to freedom. His simplicity and spirituality made people of India call him “MAHATMA” which means a Great Soul in Sanskrit. His act of AHIMSA the non violence and his hold on the people of India made the British government think twice before acting against him.
but in the year of 1922, British government arrested him due to the series of revolts which made Gandhi confess the failure of civil disobedience movement. Gandhi moved away from active politics after his release in 1924 and stated preaching communal harmony. But he was forced come back to politics in the year of 1930, by starting new campaign of civil disobedience by calling the Indians not to pay taxes especially on salt. He started a march towards the sea from Gujarat to the Arabian Sea followed by thousands of Indians called “DANDI YATRA”. For which he was again arrested and got released in the year of 1931.
He rested his campaign after the British government allowed some concessions for his demands. Gandhi represented the Indian National Congress in a London Conference in same year of 1931. Gandhi was arrested twice for his civil disobedience campaign in the year of 1932. In the jail Gandhi started a fast unto death for the Hindu untouchables to be accepted as a part of electorate. Gandhi was also main leader who fought against the caste system in India. In the year of 1934 replaced himself with Nehru as the leader of Congress party and resigned from politics. Then Gandhi worked for rights of untouchables by travelling to all places in India.
He again returned to politics in the year of 1939, his first act was to fight against the ruler of Rajkot to change his autocratic rule with a fast which was a great success which made Gandhi the most important man of Indian politics. His struggle of non violence continued which made the British think about freedom to India. In the year of 1944, struggle for Indian independence was at its final stages, But the British government wanted a agreement between the leading nationalist parties, the congress party and the Muslim league. Gandhi was the least interested in the partition of India, but was forced to accept the partition.
Then India and Pakistan became two separate countries during the Independence which created lots riots in India. Gandhi started a fast to cease the riots and called the Hindus and Muslims to live together peacefully. For that reason he was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic on his way to prayer in the year of 1948, January 30. His death got an international mourning and his life became a history. His life teaches the 21st century human resource manager that leadership is not just aggression but also about showing humanity to all people without differences with peace perspective.