The scientific management movement arose during the first two decades of the twentieth century in the United States, and it is remembered to this day, in terms of the ‘time-and-motion study man’. Its chief exponent was Frederick Winslow Taylor, whose methods were refined and extended by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and by Henry Gantt. Scientific management is a systematic method of determining the best way to do a job and specifying the skills needed to perform it and also would bring huge benefit to both parties, and lead to a community of interest with an in-built force for cooperation. (Organisational Behaviour pp.333)
Taylor’s ideas were, and still are, very influential, and his work contains a number of behaviour assumptions. I find his ideas of scientific management are useful that future management could use to try to gather together all of the traditional knowledge (the essence of skills, techniques, etc. ) which had been acquired and held by workers in their minds, record and tabulate this information and, wherever possible, reduce it to laws, rules, or even mathematical formulae. It is necessary that scientifically select workpeople and progressively train and develop them to do the jobs that are required.
Co-operating between management and workers to ensure that work is done according to the science and dividing up the actual work and responsibilities of the organisation between management and workers are also essential. (Work organisations pp. 14)The behaviour of workforce might change, if the workers stop worrying about the division of the fruits of production between wages and profits and share in the prosperity of the firm by working in the correct way and receiving wage increases of between 30-100% according to the nature of the work.
Furthermore the workers should give up their ideas of ‘soldiering’ and cooperate with management in developing the science, and also accept that management would be responsible, in accordance with the scientific approach, for determining what would be done and how. It is necessary the workers agree to be trained in new methods, where applicable. Hawthorne’s ideas were the most important inference is that people have social needs to be satisfied at work, which can be equally as important as monetary needs. Ideas such as this gave rise to the human relations movement. (Work organisations pp. , 17)
Karl Marx argues that management control is necessary for another reason. Capitalism as an economic system creates two broad classes of people. The capitalist class includes those who own and control the means of production. The working class includes those who do not own and control the means of production and who have to sell their labour-power in order to make a living. According to the article, Marx desires that the workers should control the means of production- will have come true. The capitalist and the working classes need each other- they are interdependent. But their interests are different.
The aim of the capitalist is to make profits, which can be used to accumulate more capital and make still more profit. The aim of the workers is to earn higher wages to improve their standards of living. These interests are in conflict and cannot be reconciled within the capitalist system. Marx regarded this is as one reason why capitalism would eventually be overthrown (a prediction that has so far not come true). According to the article, Handy states that ‘the big temporary recruitment agencies will put people on retainers on the condition that they keep updating their skills’.
This could well be adapted by organisations giving them the key advantage to keep workers with up to date skill, leaving them with a competitive edge within their market. Recruitment process is essential to the company, because searching for and obtaining potential job candidates in sufficient numbers and quality so that the organisation can select the most appropriate people to fill its job needs. Also the selection develops employees taking responsibility and take on the task of directing and planning their own careers and moreover minimising discrimination with both top-down policy statements and bottom-up approaches to attitude change.
Furthermore they are important that both employers and employees have specific duties under the Act to ensure safe methods of working. The recruitment and selection processes are important for future that skills make business grow, equal opportunity and people become more mature, skilled, and self-confident and self-control, and also attract staff with high reputations from existing people who bring a diverse range of skills and abilities to the workplace, together with a diverse range of experience, aspirations and expectations.
In conclusion, we are groping towards new ways of thinking about businesses. The new skills, which will be needed to cope with these changes, are the ability to win friends and influence people at a personal level, the ability to structure partnerships, and the ability to negotiate and to find compromises. Business will be much more about finding the right people in the right place and negotiating the right deals. So in a funny way the functions that will be the most important are recruitment and purchasing.
Conceptual skills are also becoming much more important. There used to be a big distinction between managerial and technical skills. The ability to analyse number was considered most important then. I think in the future will happen to the conceptual of the career. It will be a professional career path and not an organisational one. People increasing define themselves by their profession, and the definition of profession is much wider.
Very few jobs in future will be defined as jobs. Those that are- like checkout cashier- will disappear. So people will either be professionals or entrepreneurs- fleas in short. To promote your career you may work in a large organisation- an elephant- for a while to gain skills and expertise. You may go back to elephants periodically to upgrade your skills or credentials. But you will have to take responsibility for your career and your own life.