According to De Cenzo & Robbins (2002:2), inception can also be called “staffing” in that it is a way of getting individuals into the organization. This dimension entails strategic human resource planning, recruitment and selection. Hellriegel et al (1993:246) defines as the process of deciding on and analyzing the organization’s mission, overall objectives, general strategies, and major resource allocations… The overall purpose of strategic planning and management is to deal effectively with environmental opportunities and threats in terms of the organization’s strengths and weaknesses”.
The major elements in strategic planning are mission, objectives, strategies and resource allocation. De Cenzo et al (2002:150) defines recruiting as “the process of discovering potential candidates for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. Or from another perspective, it is a linking activity- bringing together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs. In other words, recruitment is the process of looking for persons who possibly may be suitable to fill the vacancies.
It does not mean that an interested person has already been appointed in the vacancy, it only tries to find a number of suitable persons from which the final selection can be made. Hellriegel (1993:390) advises that “the organization should develop a pool of job candidates from which to select qualified employees. Candidates are recruited by, for example, running adverts, contacting employment agencies, and visiting college campuses”. One thing that should be noted is the importance of trade unions because lower-level workers are recruited by trade unions.
They have contact with all their members in the different enterprises and can bring vacancies in all the different enterprises to their members’ attention. Selection according to Hellriegel et al (1993:390), “takes place after recruiting candidates for available positions. The organization selects and hires those people who are most likely to perform well on the job. These decisions can be difficult’. It is worth noting that ,with recruitment potential groups of workers are brought together to fill a limited number of posts.
Since there are usually more applicants than vacancies available, the most suitable person has to be found by a process of elimination. According to Pretorius et al (1986:191), “recruitment is regarded as a positive process, selecting is somewhat negative, since a number of applicants are going to be turned away. Recruitment endeavours to sell the enterprise to the potential worker, while with selecting, the worker has to try to sell himself to the enterprise”.
One can argue that recruitment itself is some form of selection, since the organization attracts a particular social aggregate with specific minimum requirements. This is a way of eliminating or discouraging other workers from applying. According to Hellriegel et al (1993:406), orientation is “a formal or informal programme that introduces that introduces new employees to their job responsibilities, their co-workers, and company policies. It typically lasts one to two days”.
In other words, this process consists of introducing new employees to other staff members and familiarizing them with the objectives of the organization, as well as its policy, rules , regulations, and activities. They must be acquainted with the activities of the division where they are going to work, their own duties and responsibilities and the resources which they must use to carry out their task. One can argue that the advantage of proper orientation is that the worker gets the feeling that he belongs to the organization and that one is accepted.
This again creates a high morale and enthusiasm with the employee. This results in better production, less transgression of rules, dismissals, resignations, less grievances and better job satisfaction. Hellriegel et al ( 1993:394) defines job analysis as “a breakdown of the tasks and responsibilities and the personal characteristics, skills and experience necessary for their successful performance. A thorough job analysis has two parts : a description and specification. A job description is a detailed outline of a position’s essential tasks and responsibilities”.
Put differently, the former (job description) gives the title of the post, describes its duties, qualifications, responsibilities of the post, what decisions have to be taken, the aids needed to do the job, the working conditions, and requirement concerning the skills initiative and the ability to work independently. The latter is a declaration of the human qualifications required to do the job. It refers to the personal skills, knowledge, training experience, sense of responsibility, intelligence, physical abilities, initiative, ability to communicate and other personal characteristics.
It must be noted that there are various definitions of job analysis which, one would argue, are all similar. For example, De Cenzo, D. A. & Robbins, S. P. (2002:136) defines job analysis as “a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a technical procedure used to define the duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job”. In summary, job analysis is used to enable the organization to reconcile the requirements of the job as best as possible.
According to De Cenzo et al (2002:215), “training is a learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve the ability to perform the job. We typically say training can involve the changing of skills, knowledge, attitudes, or behaviour. It may mean changing what employees know, how the work, their attitudes towards their work, or their interaction with their co-workers or supervisor”. This means that training is used to teach the worker (usually the non-manager) technical knowledge and skills.
Apart from new workers, the dynamic environment in which the enterprise operates, necessitates that present workers be kept up to date with the new techniques and equipment in use in the enterprise. On the other hand, employee development is defined by De Cenzo et al (2002:215) as a “future-orientated training, focus on the personal growth of the employee. As your job and career progress, new skills and abilities will be required”. In other words, the objective is to develop conceptual thoughts and general knowledge and is usually aimed at managers.