Change needs to occur in all three areas of the ‘Big Three Model’ illustrated by Moss, Kanter et al. This shows the factors for change under three main headings of Macroevolutionary, Microevolutionary and Political. As there is massive competition for ‘scarce resources’ change needs to occur for the organisation to compete in a dynamic market. The major need for change is concerned with ambiguity in communication pathways. The bureaucratic centralised style is ineffective in the department and has lead to a change being urgently required.
To manage a culture change the current culture must be understood and the future culture must be analysed, (Brooks & Bate, 1994). For the new structure to work communication should be enhanced. Staff, employed by the university, feel undervalued and this is an area, which needs urgent attention as this does little to inspire a workforce. The culture held within most Japanese companies is that each member of the team is equally important. This effectively decreases any animosity between colleagues and achieves greater production as every member of the workforce feels they are important.
This culture was born from the paddy fields where each person had a separate job, but without each individual performing their job to the best of their ability the crop would be a failure and all would suffer. (Appendix 5) The internal competition within the workforce is detrimental towards the strategic goal and requires bonding and other team building exercises on a regular basis. The department would be wise to follow the same strategy, which Hewlett – Packard devised (Appendix 4).
In this example the company commonly held social gatherings and used them as bonding sessions with the effect of uniting the workforce and airing problems. A main concern for any organisation undergoing change must be how staff interact with the new systems, as they have been set in their traditional ways of doing things. An example of this was shown when Linda Smircich studied the top executive group of an American insurance company (Appendix 3) where staff that had been employed after the change took the approach of “This is how we did it at…
” Change within the organisation could be achieved easier now, as the organisation does not seem to be set in old cultures. The common feeling within the department is that change is required; this is a major advantage for the department managers, as they will receive support rather than opposition, which is usually received when change is mentioned. Gagliardi, (1986) suggests that there are three types of change, these are apparent change, revolutionary change and cultural incrementalism.
The department would benefit most from a ‘revolutionary’ change as there is no significant culture, which has been identified. It is more detrimental to apply revolutionary change to an organisation which has a history of culture and is deeply set in tradition. The management of any change within an organisation is important, there needs to be clear understanding of future aims, present cultural and structural state and all employees should be kept updated on strategies and reasons behind them.
It is important that employees are kept informed, as it will lead to less resistance. Kotter and Schlesinger (1979), identified six strategies to overcome resistance to change. These were Education and Communication, Participation and Involvement, Facilitation and Support, Negotiation and Agreement, Manipulation and Cooperation and finally Explicit and Implicit threats Whenever an organisation undergoes cultural change there are many factors, which affect the way in which change is achieved. The initial problem of resistance to change needs to be overcome.
There are many reasons why change may be resisted within an organisation, these can be economical, fear of job losses, reduced earnings or reduced promotion prospects, social factors, e. g. break-up of work groups or psychological factors which may include insecurity, inability to adjust, loss of control or power and misunderstanding the nature of the change. Dunlop University can overcome the resistance to change by consulting and informing the whole department as early as possible and keeping them informed throughout the process, as well as making them aware of the long-term benefits of the change.
A cultural web showing the current state of the organisation (Appendix 1) allows the analysis of the organisation to be compiled under headings in a model format, showing the complete picture. The future cultural web (appendix 2) shows the expected state of the company and comparisons can be drawn. With current analysis providing evidence of a fragmented culture within the department, coupled with the fact that there is discontent amongst a rapidly growing departmental team, now seems the ideal time for change.
Many problems stem from the split culture, which exists within the department. There are signs of a ‘Task Culture’, where employees act in a way they consider suitable for the task, but with the increasing political alliances within the department the culture is becoming more ‘Person Culture’, where the individual does his or her own thing. The ideal culture to adopt in the best interests of the organisation is an ‘Adventurous Culture’, where new ideas are welcomed, staff are allowed autonomy and are able to show initiative and the emphasis is on taking advantage of new opportunities.
For the change to be successful the management must ensure a sound distribution of up-to-date knowledge, which includes the strategic plan, aims of the change, future goals and new systems. Staff need to be reassured of their value to the department. It is important for the department to adopt the correct culture from the change, as a culture has many benefits, which include, motivation for employees, positive images of the organisation as a whole, quality of work and increase competitive advantage.