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This process depends on a range of factors. Small coffee shops, for example, will have less need for policies and procedures, compared to Starbucks, where management of the masses is needed. This shows that context is important. Working in a small family owned coffee shop, Claudia experienced some pressure from her supervisor which also played the role as a line manager, but only at busy times when the extra effort was needed and she actually felt recognised for her potential, motivating her.

Despite the HR manager devising the HR plan and recruitment planning, the line manager is involved in the implementation of these plans in advising HR managers of their objectives and strategies in order to work towards vertical integration. The necessary policies and procedures depend on what type of organisation is in question, and can vary from good to bad practices, more commonly in the smaller companies, where procedural issues tend to arise. For example, McDonalds as a large organisation has a vast range of different procedures, but they are usually very strict, particularly the health and safety related ones.

This makes their practices notably significant, as opposed to a smaller company such as a small local business, where, with a smaller workforce, such procedures are not needed, or are more relaxed and flexible. Line managers therefore need to take care that all the stakeholders’ expectations and interests have been met whilst implementing their recruitment and selection plan. The model in Appendix 1e shows these stakeholders and the controls they exercise on the recruitment and selection practices.

Additionally, line managers need to be aware of the pool of candidates potentially existent inside the organisation, before choosing to recruit externally. The recruitment and selection model in Appendix 1c shows the process and the implications line managers have throughout this process. If HR and line managers can maintain a talent management strategy in the selection process, they could recognise the full potential of a candidate but also something unique and special about them that allows them to perform higher than others.

This talent directly gives the organsiation that competitive edge and strategically speaking, is very important, as, if employees don’t feel recognised or fully utilised for their talents, they become dissatisfied (Armstrong, 2009, p. 517), resulting in high labour turnover. This is where over-qualified candidates may get turned down, as they would have high expectations of the job they intend to get, but then sadly the job is less demanding than they originally perceived.

In addition, the Psychological Contract comes into play then in this context, as both parties have their own expectations that all the legal requirements have been met and loyalty to one another should lead to a prosperous future. Linking back to SWOT and PEST, through the use of technology and building on the company’s strengths, such as on their brand name, more E-recruitment methods these days are being chosen.

Such problems like unfair discrimination and costly posting of relevant job documentation can be avoided, as the candidate or business can find each other online and make decisions via email discussion and send copies of documents to one another. Candidates will be employed solely on what is on paper and not from impressions within a personal interview. Recruitment and selection can be costly and time consuming and thus ‘a systematic and objective approach’ (Cornelius, 2001, p36) is needed to be able to reduce the ‘possibility of selecting the ‘wrong’ person when a selection decision is reached’ (ibid).

The Candidate ‘In deciding on the strategy for attracting candidates for an assigned role, we must consider what really matters from the candidate’s perspective’ (Grimshaw, 2009, p98). Human Capital is a very important theory as it regards employees as value adders and thus places a high importance to their satisfaction, both as individuals and in the workplace. Thus, candidates need to be presented with a very clear description of the job they will potentially fulfill in the organisation, as line managers need to detail the benefits as well as the requirements for the job in the organisation.

Berman et al (, p85) quote Rynes’ (1993) suggestions for line managers in conducting the recruitment and selection process stating: ‘In the interview process, candidates appreciate a realistic job preview’. Additionally, ‘good’ candidates expect the process ‘to result in timely notification of being in contention, prompt follow-ups and enough time to make a reasonable choice amongst offers’ (ibid), as well as feedback, either negative or positive. Another key point to be considered by line managers is the way the interviews are carried and having an ‘enthusiastic, informative and credible’ (ibid) approach to the interview and the candidate.

Line managers need to take in consideration the fact that candidates are motivated by external factors and be aware primarily of the motives for which they have applied for the job. Weather the candidates are ‘dissatisfied with their current position’ (Grimshaw, 2009, p100) or are ‘proactively seeking to broaden their experience’ (ibid), line managers need to identify these motives and be aware of them in order to make the recruitment and selection process effective and efficient for the candidate and for the company.

Recruitment and selection only proves efficient and effective if it is followed by effective retention of staff. In order for that to happen, candidates must be aware of the company’s culture and the requirements they are asked to fulfill. It is important to view recruitment and selection from the candidate’s viewpoint as it can increase its effectiveness and ensure the future employee will act as a value adder throughout their experience in that particular role.

If unfair recruitment and selection procedures are in place, the candidate will find him/herself unmotivated and thus their performance in the company will decrease. The processual approach in the selection stage will make the candidate feel more valued by the company they will potentially work for. The negotiation between both parties will enable both to make their own decisions on whether the job is really a good ‘fit’ or not. If the ‘fit’ is achieved, and if the process is carried out properly, then the employee is more likely to be retained within the company.

For instance, if they are satisfied by one of Maslow’s higher factors in his Hierarchy of Needs, such as self-actualisation, they would likely be even more motivated to stay. Strategy Integration ‘If organization selection is informed by the organisation’s environment, linked to strategy, socially responsible, valid, periodically evaluated and maintained by knowledge of leading theory and practice, then selection is, indeed, strategic’ (Lundy et al, 1996, in Millmore, 2007, p282)

Strategic recruitment and selection takes place ‘when practice is aligned with and integrated into the strategic planning process of organisations’ (Millmore et al, 2007, p284); adding ’employee attributes’ to the mission and vision of the organisation is part of a long term strategy that aims to ‘develop recruitment and selection practice to source an organisation with those attributes deemed critical to its future success’. This view relies on labour forecasting and puts recruitment and selection at the starting point of an overall business strategy which views human resources as a high determinant of success.

In order to be strategic, Purcell (2001), quoted by Millmore et al (2007, p15), considers that ‘HRM needs to demonstrate a two-way link to strategy’. Thus, ‘HRM will be informed by organizational strategy as well as helping to shape the nature of that strategy’ (ibid). It is essential that HR strategies are integrated in the organisations strategy from the beginning, as well as it is important for HRM to devise strategies that look into recruiting and selection candidates to fulfill the company’s objectives in the short, medium and long term.

In practice, integration of strategies at all levels is hard to achieve depending on the management style and size of the company, as well as its culture and employee involvement. Nevertheless, its importance is highly prominent in large companies which deal with high labour turnover and low motivation levels. Williams et al (1997), quoted by (Millmore et al, 2007, p279) go so far as to argue that ‘where SHRM strategies in general and selection specifically are coherent and aligned to current and future business strategy, personnel selection will make a significant contribution to organizational performance’.

Conclusion Recruitment, selection and retention are seen as the main human resource activity because, seen from a processual approach, they are ‘designed to deliver an organisation’s strategic objectives rather than an isolated activity conducted in a vacuum’ (Millmore et al, 2007, p285). Whether recruitment and selection is carried out because of a growth strategy or because of a vacancy, the strategy devised by HR managers need to be vertically integrated with the business strategy and horizontally integrated in the bundle on HRM strategies.

Additionally, it has to be a fair and indiscriminative process in order to be of benefit to the company and to the candidates. HR managers need to work together with line managers and advise them on policies and procedures that need to be carried out in order to recruit and select the candidate with the right competences or with the ability to achieve the competences desired. Recruitment and selection as a HR activity is indisputably significant in importance, for line and HR managers alike, but also the candidate.

The HR manager puts the restrictions and procedures in place, and the line manager, after carrying out job analyses, where such vacant job positions may have changed, then sifts through the pool of candidates. It is the line manager’s duty and ‘careful attention’ however, to select the right people in the final selection stage that will hopefully add value to the potential job, evidently giving that all important competitive advantage.

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