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In addition, there is another important thing, which manager should concern. It is stress. Stress is the unusual condition that occurs in the psychological or physiological system of a human being. (Armstrong, 1990) Emotional stress can have the most impact on the effectiveness and mental health of managers and hard to control. This type of stress can be classified into four general categories. Firstly, time stress, it is a worry reaction to the feeling that something must be done before a deadline or feeling that time is running out.

Secondly, situational stress, it is concern as a result of finding oneself excessively under pressure by events or people. It can happen when there is conflict or distrust between people. Lastly, Encounter stress, this is anxiety about dealing with individuals or groups of people who are perceived as potentially unpleasant or unpredictable. Actually, stress and pressure are not the same. Some pressure is normal and wanted as a motivating force.

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It is only when the pressure becomes excessive that it can turn into stress. (Armstrong, 1990) There are many causes of stress such as working condition, work overload, job security, personal relationships and so on. Some people can resist the stress more than others because every people have their own characteristic pattern. Stress can cause many undesirable effects to physical or mental health and even the organization. However, stress can be managed by adaptive behaviour.

For example, an overworked or workaholic may adapt successfully by passing on more work to the assistant but if the manager still accept the overload, as a result, pressure and stress could be increased and lead to declining in the performance. Then, the effective managers should be able to manage stress in order to gain the best of their potential. There are many ways to manage stress such as building the supportive relationships with the superior, colleagues and subordinates, discussing the problem issues in a frank and friendly way, spending some time for privacy and freedom from pressure, and always face up realistically to the situation.

(Armstrong, 1990) In conclusion, everyone wants to be an effective manager but the problem is how can they achieve this goal. There are many factors that have not been mentioned in this report, however the outdoor training has shown us, students to try to be the effective manager, about the complicating of the real business world. Of course, in the business world, it always has some troubles but the point is how can we solve the situation by using the right managerial skills in order to bring the success to our organisation.

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