The group’s personalities played a large role in the team because these members had to complete assigned tasks in order for the program to be successful. In addition “personality and values are the most stable characteristics” in an individual (McShane and Von Glinow, 2004, p. 38). Their motivation and persistence determines if the tasks are completed on time. The team must possess similar personality traits and values in order for them to accomplish the jobs. Therefore, the leader must choose the right person for the assignment in order to accomplish the goals for the DARE program. Personality Preference and the MBTI Assessment
The MBTI assessment provides 16 personality types that reveal the present and future growth of an individual. Isabel Briggs-Myers stated “The MBTI is primarily concerned with the valuable differences in people that result from where they like to focus their attention, the way they like to take in information, the way they like to decide and the kind of lifestyle they adopt” (Bringhurst, 2001). The MBTI creators developed questions and-based on the responses determines if the individuals are extroverted-introverted (E-I), sensing-intuitive (S-N), thinking-feeling (T-F), and judging-perceiving (J-P).
The personality indicator gives insight into how individuals may act alone and in a team setting. 1) E vs. I An extroverted person receives energy from others, is action-oriented in problem-solving and comfortable interacting with people (Bringhurst, 2001). On the other hand, an introverted person gives up energy when interacting with others and prefers to be alone (Herrmann, 1997, p 114). These different types of personalities affect how employees complete tasks. 2) S vs. N
Sensing individuals’ use their five senses to take in information and identify the appropriate details while intuitive people seek to find meaning, possibilities, and relationships associated with the information being received (Bringhurst, 2001). For instance, a sensing team member in the case study possesses good observation skills during follow-up visits for the rehab patients. 3) T vs. F “Thinking types rely on logical structures to clarify order into a particular situation: they are skilled at objectively organizing material, weighing the facts, and impersonally judging whether something is true or false” (Carlyn, 1977, p.461).
Feeling people comprehend other individuals’ feelings basing their judgments on their personal values (Carlyn, 1977, p. 461). In the simulation, the thinker type judges the addict will never recover or change, as opposed to the feeling type believes there is hope for the person. 4) J vs. P The judging individual “is very decisive, wants to effect closure sooner rather than later, is impatient to ‘get on with it’ and proceed to the next task” (Bringhurst, 2001). This type of personality in a team setting maintains a focused path continuing towards their goals.
The perceiving type, on the other hand, “prefer to keep their options open, being able to live with a high level of uncertainty in their lives, waiting until the last moment to decide” (Bringhurst, 2001). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory explains the understanding of motivation-based on five human needs. Halepota (2005) stated, “A person’s needs are the main motivator that drives a human” (p. 15). Once the needs are satisfied, they are no longer a motivator and the individual moves up to the next level (Cook, 2001, p. 63).
Maslow categorized these needs in the following levels: physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. The physiological level, which is the lowest level of human needs, fulfills the basic requirements for survival such as air, food, drink, water. The safety level completes a person’s need to be free of physical and emotional threat. Once physiological and safety are met, the individual can focus on the needs related to interaction with other people or social need. The fourth level is categorized in two parts, internal and external.
Internal esteem needs are those related to self-esteem such as self-respect and achievement and external esteem needs are social status and recognition (Cook, 2001, p. 63). The summit of the pyramid is self-actualization. Although this need is never fully satisfied, these individuals have needs such as truth, justice, and wisdom. It is important to note, “A person who has had all of his or her lower level needs fulfilled, and is looking to meet higher level needs, may go back to the lowest level needs if there is a sudden reversal in the environment” (Halepota, 2005, p.15).
DARE Volunteers and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s theory held important implications when choosing members for the DARE team. If the leader can determine which level each employee has reached, then suitable choices can be made for the individual (Halepota, 2005, p. 15). For the selected DARE members, the physiological and safety needs appear fulfilled-based on their personality profiles. Lisa Strafford, selected for building cases, is part of several social awareness groups, strives for recognition, and is a hard-worker.
This indicates Lisa’s needs are fulfilled at the social level of the pyramid, but desires recognition at the esteem and self-actualized level. The facilitator for self-help groups is Daniel Nichols. Daniel’s innate urge to compete and desire to prove his abilities signifies he is attempting to fulfill his needs at the esteem and self-acutalization level. Michelle Levy performs follow-ups for the DARE group. Her profile specifies she is dependable, excellent problem solver, and participates in a math group.
Michelle has fulfilled her social need by participating in team-based projects, but lacks self-esteem indicated by her pessimist outlook. The final volunteer picked for the team was Tony Wu. Tony prides himself on accuracy, never letting friends down, and meeting obligations. Outside of work, he is an active participant in-group activity. These characteristics signify Tony is at the esteem level needs. At this point in life, Tony needs recognition for a job well done. After dissecting the needs, the entire team fluctuates between the esteem and self-actualization level.
Moving through the simulation, the members needed challenges and validation of their success to fulfill the self-acutalization need. Analyzing the volunteers satisfied and unsatisfied needs allows the leader to focus on areas of opportunity to motivate the team members. Team Analysis After choosing the DARE team, the mentor, Megan Cavanaugh, stated the leader had achieved the ideal personality-job fit at the beginning of the scenario. Although the final implementation status resulted in a score of 100%, the leader encountered several issues with the volunteers during the process.
These issues included the need for growth, relatedness, social power, and self-actualization. In the beginning, Lisa sought personal growth opportunities by advertising her achievements when a chance arose. Her manager found her focusing more on the DARE project as opposed to primary responsibilities. The leader stressed the importance of balancing her tasks and clarifying her goals to be successful. Daniel’s constant need to prove his abilities resulted in an objective reminder from the manager about his behavior. Communicating the concerns with Daniel motivates him to achieve his esteem and self-actualization need.
Towards the end of the project, the volunteers encountered a roadblock by upper administration to decrease time spent by 30%. The leader realized the volunteers needed a challenge and glimpse of success; therefore, the best motivational strategy to entice the team would be through communicating incentives and awards for performance and their contributions are recognized (Managing Individual, n. d. ). Halepota (2005) stated, “… esteem needs and self-actualization needs… can be fulfilled through praise, listening, and involvement” (p. 15).