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Nile market is an application to be developed and hosted using
smart web hosting and will be available on the googleplaystore. The Nile market
will be designed to provide students with a prime market place where they can
sell and buy new or used goods, it also allows business to post ads specific to
their location or area. An application will also be created in this respect
called NILE MARETPLACE where students can post and view ads comment, buy i and
review products using android devices. 
As applications have become very important in the life’s of people it is
important to develop applications that meet the requirements of students. The
customers in today’s world are on the move and are using mobile phones, the
mobile applications provide users with all the information they need. The
proposed system offers customer, sellers, and businesses with all the
information required for sales of commodity within the Nile University.

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1 Introduction:

A marketplace, is a
place where goods are sold and bought. Markets have around since the beginning
of time. Over time markets have evolved in different ways.


An online e-commerce marketplace is a
type of e-commerce
site where product or service information is provided by multiple parties, and
the transactions are done and computed by the marketplace operator. In an
online ecommerce platform, consumer transactions are processed by the system operator
and then delivered and fulfilled by the participating retailers or seller’s .Other
capabilities in an ecommerce site might include catalogs, ordering and advert

Marketplaces bring
together products from a wide array of providers, selection offered is usually wider,
and availability is higher than in vendor-specific online retail stores. Also
prices tend to be more competitive1.


An ecommerce mobile
application provides this same capabilities as a web application but specifically
for use on Smartphones. The mobile application offers use on multiple
platforms,  Android OS (Google Inc.), Bada
(Samsung Electronics),BlackBerry OS (Research In Motion),iPhone OS / iOS
(Apple),MeeGo OS (Nokia and Intel),Palm OS (Garnet OS) and Windows Mobile
(Windows Phone).2


The ecommerce
application will be a hybrid application. Hybrid Mobile Applications. Hybrid
development combines the best of both the native and HTML5 worlds. Hybrids are
defined as a web app, primarily built using HTML5 and JavaScript. They are developed
specifically for a platform, and take full advantage of all the device features
they can use the camera, the GPS, the list of contacts, and so on. They can
also incorporate different gestures.3



There are several types of e-commerce which are grouped
based on the nature of the transactions: business-to-consumer (B2C),
business-to-business (B2B), consumer-to-consumer (C2C), consumer-to-business

1. BUSINESS-TO-CONSUMER E-COMMERCE: In B2C e-commerce, businesses sell
directly a diverse group of products andservices to customers . In addition to pure
B2C e-commerce players such as, and other
traditional businesses have entered thevirtual marketplace by establishing
comprehensive web sites and virtualstorefronts.Someof the advantages of these
e-commerce sites and companies include availability of physical space
(customers can physically visit the store), availability of returns(customers
can return a purchased item to the physical store), and availability of
customer service in these physical stores.4

2) Business to Business ecommerce

Business-to-Business e-commerce holds electronic
transactions among and between businesses. The Internet and reliance of all
businesses upon other companies for supplies, utilities, and services has
enhanced the popularity of B2B e-commerceand made B2B the fastest growing
segment within the e-commerce environment. In recent years extranets (more than
one intranet) have been effectively used for B2Boperations. B2B e-commerce
creates dynamic interaction among the business partners; this represents a
fundamental shift in how business will be conducted in the 21st century.4

3.Consumer to Consumer:

Using C2C e-commerce, consumers sell directly to other
consumers using the Internet and web technologies. Individuals sell a wide
variety of services/products on the Web or through auction sites such as, and through classified ads or by advertising.4


Consumer-to-business (C2B) e-commerce that involves
individuals selling tobusinesses may include a service/product that a consumer
is willing to sell.Individuals offer certain prices for specific
products/services. 4



students and staff of tertiary institutions buy and sell both new and used
items, businesses within the school also offer services to. However, there are
no web pages or application where staff can upload items for sale and also
purchase items with in Nile University.



The aim of
this research is to design and implement a mobile application and web
application that will provide students, staffs and businesses within Nile
University and the country at large to sell and buy items online.


following are the objectives of the project:

To design a user friendly mobile application
(NileMarket) for students and staff of Nile University.

To promote the concept of reusability of
commodities that are used by the students of Nile University.


motivation for doing this project was an interest in undertaking a project that
enables me to bring together the different skills I have acquired during my
degree to create a project that will impact the school positively. I am also
motivated byt the opportunity to learn about new areas of computing not covered
in lectures. This Which I might study at postgraduate level.



Lots of
students order items from various places, they also sell and buy some of their
items. Students change phones, order food from restaurants and get other
services within the school. However, there are no web pages or  programs where teachers students’ can upload
some of their old or used items. There is also no platform that allows business
within the school to share information on their products (new and old), sale on
items, prices and also take orders using applications.

research study will develop a web and mobile application called “the
NILE-MARKET” that will provide a platform for sellers(students/businesses)
within the school to upload information as well as descriptions on items they
would like to sell. It also provides a platform for businesses within the
school to build customer loyalty with in the school and for students to rate

The system will
be significant to the school because it offers:

ü Easy Accessibility:

will be of great benefit to the Nile students by providing them easy
accessibility to a marketplace anytime and anywhere to buy and sell items with
in the school and also to buy goods from businesses with in the goods.

ü Time Optimization:

are no time restrictions as to when user can put an item up for selling or
buying. It also provides businesses access to more customers in the school as
not all students will buy the products during day time.


ü Allows nile businesses to build Customer
loyalty and branding:

ecommerce site also provides sellers and businesses with in Nile university to
brand their items and build consumer loyalty. Businesses like the pizza in
school can sell their items and take orders online.

Convenience & Easiness:

Around the
world, e-Commerce has become one of the preferred ways of shopping also within
the school as it provides easiness and convenience. Students are allowed to buy
products or services from their home at any time of day or night.

The best thing
about it is buying options that are quick, convenient and user-friendly with
the ability to transfer funds online. Because of its convenience, students can
save their lots of time by searching their products easily and making
purchasing online.

Offer Product Datasheets:

Consumers can
also get descriptions from product catalog. For your customers, it is very much
important to get information about the product no matter whether the time of
day and day of the week. Through information, studentscan make decisions to
purchase products or not.



In this project,
the Agile software development approach will be used. This is the most ideal
method for building an ecommerce site11.Agile software methodology describes
a set of values and principles for software development under which
requirements and solutions are well defined. It advocates adaptive planning,
evolutionary development, early delivery, and continuous improvement, and it
encourages rapid and flexible response to change12. These principles support the definition and continuing evolution of many software
development methods. Most agile development methods break product development
work into small increments that minimize the amount of up-front planning and
design. Iterations, or sprints, are short time frames (time boxes) that
typically last from one to four weeks.13


projects are perfect for Agile development. Things generally seem to move a
little bit faster in eCommerce than in other areas. Priorities are constantly
changing to keep up with competition and customer trends and to leverage the
latest technology advancements to provide a rich experience11. You need to
release functionality early and often, then measure (through web analytics)
what works, what doesn’t and iteratively refine it. It also generally more of a
convergence of business and technical SMEs.11
















IEEE- Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers

The Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers is a professional organization It aims to provide
educational and technical advancement of electrical and electronic engineering,
and computer engineering.


A software development kit is a set of
software development tools that allows the creation of applications for a
certain software package, software framework, hardware platform, computer
system, video game console, operating system, or similar development platform.


A personal computer (PC) is a
microcomputer designed to be used by a person at a time.

C#- C SHARP an object oriented
programming language from Microsoft.


set of functions that can used to aid the creation of applications which access
the features of an operating system, application, or other service.

The software that supports a computer’s basic functions, such as scheduling.

Ecommerce-Electronic commerce-buying and
selling of goods and services, and 
transmitting data and other funds, over an electronic network.

Digital marketing- Marketing  products or services using different digital




Electronic Commerce (EC) is widely growing since the early 1990s as people
experienced ease and comfort of  doing
the transaction through the internet 5.Web services are more and more
popular, it is now a place where people do business and communication such as
shopping, preparing contracts, doing negotiations. The rise of e-commerce has
changed the way the world does business .The increasing importance of a
marketplace is driven in by the ever-growing availability of Wi-Fi access, not
only within the home, but also in public areas, such as Nile University. These
factors have come together to create an environment which facilitates online
purchases at almost any time and anywhere. The online market continues to grow.
All this provides many new opportunities for businesses and individuals to meet
sells and as well as to gain customers. According to certain information6 70
million Nigerians currently use the Internet with 67 percent of that number
being male users, and 45 percent being students. In 2014 alone, Nigeria had 10
million users, ranking 8 in the world as far as Internet users go.

Users of
e-commerce sites are constantly exposed to privacy and security risks. The
security and privacy policies put in place by owners of the platforms are often
inadequate. This is because these proprietors focus on functionality and
ease-of-use. Another issue posing risk on online shopping platform centers on
web retailers’ use of customers’ and visitors’ information. This actually
constitutes privacy risk. One aspect entails monitoring visitors’ and
customers’ preferences through cookies without their knowledge. The other involves
passing customers’ private information to third party without their knowledge
or consent. Table 1. Popular e-commerce sites in Nigeria with their respective
rankings based on some indices 5 Site Rank in Nigeria Global Rank % of
visitors* Daily time on site** How fast the site loads (secs) 7
1,098 97.1 22.21 Slow (2.253) 12 1,861 98.0 16.52 Very slow (3.765) 40 6,539 95.1 6.58 Very slow (3.164) 51 9,698 97.5 4.54
Average (1.872) 54 7,494 98.0 23.48 Very slow (3.86) 70
10,502 94.3 11.04 Slow (2.352) 160 22,618 98.8 11.27 Very slow
(8.527) 219 27,012 90.6 7.47 Slow (2.624) 297 35,958
99.2 10.42 Very slow (3.477) 415 51,713 96.9 16.29 Slow.Being aware
that there are privacy and security risks associated with the internet
naturally moderates a user’s behavior while online. For instance, 7
discovered that putting third-party seals influence trust disposition. The
success of e-commerce, as is the case with any technology, depends largely on
its being accepted by potential customers. Ecommerce acceptance goes beyond
obtaining information from an e-commerce site, but also includes actual
transaction by purchasing from the site. In other words, acceptance goes beyond
mere intentions; it actually entails transaction behavior. Web retailers desire
buyers and not just visitors who surf their pages 8. One factor which greatly
determines customers’ acceptance of ecommerce is; Trust is fundamental to
adoption of e-commerce. This is more so because online transactions have a high
degree of uncertainties associated with them. This makes building trust so
fundamental to the growth of e-commerce Web retailers must integrate
technologies that provide security into their online retail platforms. These
include authentication and encryption mechanisms, privacy seals and
disclosures, and firewalls. Escobar-Rodríguez 5 discovered that third-party
assurance seals, privacy and security policies influence perceived security.
Studies have shown that customers on e-commerce sites seek not only benefits
that are utilitarian, but also those epicurean benefits. For instance,
customers naturally would want to be able to compare prices of products and
navigate easily through webpages. In addition, they desire e-commerce sites
with visually appealing designs, which provide pleasurable online shopping
experience. Navigation functionality has positive effect on trust. An
e-commerce site with good design layout guarantees ease of use. Studies have
shown that perceived ease of use of website, for instance, to access needed
information increases likelihood to accept the site. Providing necessary
contents and functionality is important to influence acceptance of e-commerce
site. Relevant Information To enhance customers’ confidence to purchase the
product a web retailer must provide adequate product information . Information
on products and services offered, as well as the procedures for transaction
must be complete and accurate. Insufficient information is a threat to acceptance
of e-commerce 4. Two important pieces of information are the privacy and
security policies of the e-commerce platforms. One of the antecedents of trusts
on e-commerce sites is perceived security. To make a purchase a customer must
trust the web retailer and also trust the e-commerce infrastructure. Fear of
privacy and security risks can therefore be expected to reduce the tendency to
transact online 7. In other words. Providing relevant information is important
to influence acceptance of e-commerce site. Offering and Value Added Service In
order to attract customers, web retailers often engage in sales promotion. The
prices of products are usually slashed during some periods of the year. In
Nigeria, the web servers of a popular ecommerce site almost crashed during a
sales promotion exercise, known as Black Friday. The amount of traffic had been
enormous. Providing value added services is another factor that can influence
acceptance. For instance, provision of fast and effective feedback or
introduction of live customer service will particularly interest new visitors.









marketing has become and will continue to become a full and complete business
model for other companies. Aspects that are attributed to the success of
ecommerce sites are  namely, commitment,
well-spent funds, an effective and persistent marketing and public relations,
great products or services to sell, not selling of junk, great customer
service, efficient and pleasant facility, polished listings and photos, paying
attention to details, and good recordkeeping (2006) 14. Aside from, and Netscape (2005), several other online companies have also emerged,
including (2005), and GTB MARKETPLACE (2017). However, the
competition is not only based on e-commerce and the use of the Internet, for
many still use conventional methods in advertising and selling their products
and services, thus, points out the indirect competitors of ecommerce sites. The
indirect competitors o include online stores, retail outlets, physical auctions
such as galleries, shops, boutiques, and estate sales, newspaper classified ads,
radio and television. From this, I have decided to consider all this in the
building of Nile market.

company began as an online bookstore; while the largest brick-and-mortar
bookstores and mail-order catalogs for books might offer 200,000 titles, an
online bookstore could offer more. Bezos named the company “Amazon”
after the world’s largest river. Since 2000, Amazon’s logotype has been an
arrow leading from A to Z, representing customer satisfaction (as it forms a
smile); the goal is to have every product in the alphabet. Furthermore,
Amazon’s initial business plan is unusual: the company does not expect a profit
for four to five years; the strategy is effective. Amazon grew steadily in the
late 1990s while other Internet companies grew blindingly fast. Amazon’s
“slow” growth provoked stockholder complaints that the company was
not reaching profitability fast enough. When the dot-com bubble burst, and many
e-commerce companies went out of business, Amazon persevered, and finally
turned its first profit in the fourth quarter of 2001: $5 million, just 1¢ per
share, on revenues of more than $1 billion, but the profit was symbolically
important 14.  provides users with the necessary information
when purchasing items on their website16. The site also includes reviews on
item details. Therefore, before user can sell or buy an item, user agree to the
terms and conditions. 17

 There are different transactions that can be
performed between  a seller and  buyer, there is no register fee applied as a
member, but sellers are maid to pay a fee. For buyer registration shown below:

2 Amazon user registration18


Figure 2.1 Amazon user registration18

will have a user ID and a password to continue selling or buying items.

2.2. eBay Inc.

With more than 88
million active users globally, eBay is the world’s largest online marketplace,
where practically anyone can buy and sell practically anything. Founded in
1995, eBay connects a diverse and passionate community of individual buyers and
sellers, as well as small businesses. Their collective impact on e-commerce is
staggering: In 2008, the total worth of goods sold on eBay was $60 billion $2,000
every second16. is a very informative website. The website similar
to amazon also includes additional information such as reviews on item details.
The website includes different categories as shown in the home page

Figure 2.1, and
products Figure 2.2 and item description Figure 2.3 ,2.4

Fig 2.1 Ebay

Fig 2.2 Ebay prodeuct  and price


Figure 2.3 Ebay
product description

Figure 2.4 Expanded
product details


Table 2.5: Comparative
analysis done on highly used ecommerce websites16

2.6 Summary of literature review:

My literature review
presents the analysis of several existing shopping online websites. It
considers the features of different ecommerce systems up to the purchasing
transaction system on the website. From this, it can be concluded that there is
no school in Nigeria and which has an ecommerce site. Therefore, the suggestion
was made to create an online Nile market shopping online system website to
combine all the different businesses within the school and allow users to sell
its products. In this system, detailed information of the different products
should be displayed by businesses with in the school. The system will also
provide a feedback feature to provide an evaluation of the businesses in the
school as to how their products are doing .My literature review has considered
the different ways of developing an ecommerce site based on past and available
work, I intend to consider all this while making my ecommerce site stand out
since my site is restricted to the school, it offers more convenience and
specialization to the students than any other ecommerce site.

In this
chapter, the various issues of concern for e-commerce have been reviewed;

trustworthiness of an e-commerce site and the stages that have to be done by
the customer on online shopping. The chapter also has provided analysis of
existing ecommerce sites within Nigeria and on a large scale the world.

It also states that the
idea of having an ecommerce site developed for the university has not been done
before therefore, the of creating a system to do so proves useful. In this
system, detailed information of the products sold by students and nile
businesses will be displayed, and the project also offers room for customers to
perform online transactions for nile students to operate cashless . This system
will also provide feedback as to what products students are interested in



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