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Cybercrimes are responsible for the
disruption of typical computer functions and contains been proven to cause the
particular downfall of several companies and also personal agencies. This study
paper aims to talk about following areas of Cybercrimes: this is, why they will
occur, regulations governing these, methods regarding committing cybercrimes,
which they have an effect on, and cybercrime reduction procedures. A lot more
specifically, this papers will look into one principal example regarding
cybercrime “hacking”. The record will present the use and further advancement
of engineering has amplified several types of crimes for instance theft
offenses and terrorism. Furthermore, this record will exhibit statistical data
that may give a thought of how long cybercrimes provides increase on the period
of a decade or a lot more.

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In the modern technology-driven grow older, keeping our private information
private has become more hard. The the fact is, highly categorized details have
become more open to public directories, because we’re more interconnected than
ever before. Our data can be obtained for almost any person to dig through for
this reason interconnectivity. This creates an adverse stigma that using
technology is actually dangerous simply because practically anybody can entry
one’s personal information for a cost. Technology is constantly on the promise
to help ease our every day lives; nevertheless, there tend to be dangers
associated with using technologies. One from the main hazards of utilizing
technology may be the threat associated with cybercrimes.
Common online users may be unacquainted with cybercrimes, let alone how to
proceed if these people fall target of cyber episodes. Many not guilty
individuals drop victim in order to cybercrimes all over the world, especially
because technology is actually evolving in a rapid speed. Cybercrimes tend to
be any offences that harm another individual utilizing a computer along with a
network. Cybercrimes may appear by problems surrounding transmission of
privateness and discretion. When privateness and private information is
actually lost or even interrupted through unlawfully people, it gives method to
high user profile crimes for example hacking, cyber terrorism, espionage,
monetary theft, copyright laws infringement, spamming, cyber warfare and much
more crimes that occur throughout borders. Cybercrimes sometimes happens to
anybody once their own information is actually breach through an illegal user.
(webopedia. com)
Based on Norton, “over the final 18 several weeks, an threatening change offers
swept over the internet. The risk landscape as soon as dominated through the
worms as well as viruses let loose by irresponsible hackers has become ruled
with a new variety of cybercriminals. Cybercrime is actually motivated through
fraud, typified through the bogus e-mail sent through “phishers” that
try to steal individual information” (Cybercrime 2011) Cybercrimes have the
effect of the success of the respective felony assets and also the downfall of
numerous companies as well as personal organizations.
Cybercrimes createanoverwhelming job for police force bureaussince they’re
extremelytechnological offences. Law enforcement organizations should have
individuals been trained in computer disciplinesand pc forensics to be able to
accurately check out computer offences or cybercrimes which have been
committed. Furthermore, many says must modernize as well as generate laws,
which disallows cybercrimes as well as outlines suitablepenalties for all those
crimes. Cybercrimes will probably become much more frequent using the arrival
associated with advance systems. It is essential that civilians, regulation
officials, and additional associates from the justice program are well-informed
regarding cybercrimes to be able to diminish the actual threat which theycause.
The objective of this paper would be to educate those who don’t understand what
are cybercrimes and it is importance within growing technical advance all
through society. Understanding the actual threat associated with cybercrimes is
really a very relevant issue simply because technology holds an excellent
impact upon our society in general. Cybercrime keeps growing every day time
because because technological evolving in computers causes it to be very possible
for anyone in order to steal without having physically doing harm to anyone due
to the lack associated with knowledge to everyone of exactly how cybercrimes
tend to be committed and how to protect on their own against this kind of
threats which cybercrimes presents. This document will talk about several
facets of Cybercrimes such as: defining the word, why cybercrimes happen, laws
regulating them, ways of committing cybercrimes, who’s affected, and avoidance
procedures and much more.



the Problem

Currently, when
individual talk about cybercrime, they may not understand the extent of these
crimes. Many questions arise when the term cybercrime is brought into question.
Some questions that arise are, “Does cybercrimes only done via the internet?”,
“Cybercrimes are done via computers only?” and so on, however, traditional
crimes such as theft and fraud that have been done via physical ways are now
been converted into digital resources and are now considered as
cybercrimes.  But what are cybercrimes?

A commonly accepted
definition of this term is that a cybercrime is a “crime committed using a
computer and the internet to steal a person’s identity or sell contraband or
stalk victims or disrupt operations with malevolent programs” (Definition of
Cybercrimes).However, other definitions have constraints to anexpansivemeaning
to more closelydescribe the word “cybercrime”. “.  Some
of these definitions as follow:

Ø New
World Encyclopedia defines it as
“is a term used broadly to describe activity in which computers or computer
networks are the tool, target, or place of criminal activity. These categories
are not exclusive and many activities can be characterized as falling in one or
more categories.”


Ø Bukisa defines it as “It is this access to the technical specifications
of how the Internet and Internet technologies are implemented that allows an
attacker to subvert systems, networks and the Internet for their own ends.”


Ø Webopedia defines it as “Cybercrime encompasses any criminal act dealing
with computers and networks (called hacking). Additionally, cybercrime also
includes traditional crimes conducted through the Internet. For example; hate
crimes, telemarketing and Internet fraud, identity theft, and credit card
account thefts are considered to be cybercrimes when the illegal activities are
committed through the use of a computer and the Internet.”


Ø WiseGeek defines it as “Cybercrimes are generally defined as any type of
illegal activity that makes use of the Internet, a private or public network,
or an in-house computer system. While many forms of cybercrime revolve around
the appropriation of proprietary information for unauthorized use, other
examples are focused more on an invasion of privacy. As a growing problem
around the world, many countries are beginning to implement laws and other
regulatory mechanisms in an attempt to minimize the incidence of cybercrime.”


Ø SearchSecurity defines it as “for any illegal activity that uses a computer as
its primary means of commission. The U.S. Department of Justice expands the
definition of cybercrime to include any illegal activity that uses a computer
for the storage of evidence.


Ø Wikipedia defines it as “Computer crime, or cybercrime, refers to any crime
that involves a computer and a network. 1 The computer may have been used in
the commission of a crime, or it may be the target.2 Netcrime refers, more
precisely, to criminal exploitation of the Internet.3 Issues surrounding this
type of crime have become high-profile, particularly those surrounding hacking,
copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming. There are also
problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted,
lawfully or otherwise.”

While there are many different definitions of cybercrime
they all have a few key concepts throughout. These key concepts are criminal
activity and the use or abuse of computers. With these concepts in mind cyber
crime can be easily defined as using a computer to commit a criminal act




Cyber criminal offense includes any
kind of
felony behave coping with computer systems as well as
systems (called hacking). Furthermore, cyber criminal offense additionally
consists of conventional offences carried out with the Web. For instance;
detest offences, telesales as well as Web scams, identification thievery, as
well as charge card accounts thefts tend to be regarded as cyber offences once
the unlawful actions tend to be dedicated by using some
type of computer and also the Web.

The definition of cyber safety is
employed to be able to reference the particular
safety supplied by means of on-line companies to be able to
guard your online details.
Having an improving level of folks acquiring
linked to World wide web, the particular safety dangers in which
result in enormous hurt are usually improving furthermore.

Types of Cyber Crime



Causes of Cybercrimes & methods of committing

There are many ways
or means where cybercrimes can occur. Here are a few causes and methods of how
cybercrimes can be committed on a daily basis: Hacking, Theft of information
contained in electronic form, Email bombing, Data diddling, Salami attacks,
Denial of Service attack, Virus / worm attacks, Logic bombs, Trojan attacks,
Internet time theft, and Web jacking. (

v  Hacking: In other words can be
referred to as the unauthorized access to any computer systems or network. This
method can occur if computer hardware and software has any weaknesses which can
be infiltrated if such hardware or software has a lack in patching, security
control, configuration or poor password choice.

v  Theft of information contained in
electronic form:
This type of method occur when information stored in computersystems are
infiltrated and are altered or physically being seized via hard disks;
removable storage media or other virtual

v  Email bombing:This is another form of
internet misuse where individuals directs amass numbers of mail to the victim
or an address in attempt to overflow the mailbox, which may be an individual or
a company or even mail servers there by ultimately resulting into crashing.
There are two methods of perpetrating an email bomb which include mass mailing
and list linking.

v  Data diddling: Is the changing of data
before or during an intrusion into the computer system. This kind of an occurrence
involves moving raw data just before a computer can processes it and then altering
it back after the processing is completed.

v  Salami attacks: This kind of crime is
normally consisting of a number of smaller data security attacks together end
resulting in one major attack. This method normally takes place in the
financial institutions or for the purpose of committing financial crimes. An
important feature of this type of offence is that the alteration is so small
that it would normally go unnoticed. This form of cybercrime is very common in
banks where employees can steal small amount and it’s very difficult to detect
or trace an example is the “Ziegler case”wherein a logic
bomb penetrated the bank’s system, which deducted only 10 cents from every
account and deposited it in one particular account which is known as the “penny

v  Denial of Service attack: Is basically where a
computer system becomes unavailable to it’s authorize end user. This form of
attack generally relates to computer networks where the computer of the victim
is submerged with more requests than it can handle which in turn causing the pc
to crash. E.g. Amazon, Yahoo. Other incident occursNovember,
2010 whistle blower site got a DDoS attack.

v Virus / worm attacks: Viruses are programs
that can embed themselves to any file. The program thencopiesitself and spreads
to other computers on a network which they affectanything on them, either by changing
or erasing it. However, worms are not like viruses, they do not need the host
to attach themselves to but makeuseful copies of them and do this constantly
till they consume up all the available space on a computer’s memory. E.g. love
bug virus, which affected at least 5 % of the computers around the

v  Logic bombs:They are basically a set
of instructions where can be secretly be execute into a program where if a
particular condition is true can be carried out the end result usually ends
with harmful effects. This suggests that these programs are produced to do
something only when a specific event (known as a trigger event) occurs. E.g. Chernobyl

v    Trojan attacks:The term suggests where
a program or programs mask themselves as valuable tools but accomplish damaging
tasks to the computer. These programs are unlawful which flaccidly gains
control over another’s system by assuming the role as an authorised program. The
most common form of a Trojan is through e-mail. E.g. lady film director in
the U.S.

v   Internet time thefts:This form
is kinds of embezzlementswhere the fraudulentuses the Internet surfing hours of
the victim as their own which can be complete byobtaining access to the login
ID and the password, an example is Colonel Bajwa’s case- in this
incident the Internet hours were used up by a 
unauthorized person.

v  Web jacking: This is where the
hacker obtains access and can control web site of another person, where he or
she can destroy or alter the information on the siteas they see fit to them.This
type of method of cybercrime is done for satisfying political agendas or for purely
monetary means. An example of such method was MIT (Ministry of Information
Technology) was hacked by the Pakistani hackers whereas another was the ‘gold
fish’ case, site was hacked and the information relating to gold
fish was altered and the sum of $ 1 million was demanded.



Prevention and Procedure

this modern age, it seems almost impossible to avoid being a victim of cybercrime,
with all the advancements in technology which make it easy for someone to
perform cybercrimes. In light of this, there are some ways however to avoid
becoming a victim of cybercrime. Most internet browsers email service, and
Internet providers provide a spam-blocking feature to prevent unwanted
messages, such as fraudulent emails and phishing emails, from getting to your
inbox. However, every user must ensure to turn them on and do not turn them off
whatsoever. Also, users must install and keep up-to-date antivirus programs,
firewalls and spyware checkers. Along with keeping them up to date, users must
make sure that they run the scans regularly. There are many companies out there
that provide free software, but there are other you can purchase, along with
that of the many produced by the leading companies providers; in addition,
those companies provide free version of their paid or subscription antivirus
software. Encryption of information that you do not want anyone to have
unauthorized access to is a good way to avoid some cybercrimes; information
such as password and credit card information for example. Encryption software
runs your data through encryption algorithms to make it unintelligible to
anyone who tries to hack into your computer.

good precaution is to be weary of who you divulge your personal information to.
Try to avoid unknown websites, in particular those that ask for your name,
mailing address, bank account number or social security number. When doing
online shopping make sure website is secure, look for urls that starts with
“https”and/or have the Trustee or VeriSign seal. If you do not see these
anywhere on the site, you run the risk of submitting credit card information
and other personal information to a site that maybe a fraud.

way to avoid being a victim of cybercrimes is to avoid being susceptible to common
frauds, such as inherences letter, letter asking for your help in placing large
sums of money in overseas bank accounts, foreign lotteries, and phony
sweepstakes. Those mentioned activities are all methods used by cyber criminals
to get your personal information and money. If it sounds too good to be true,
it probably is.

children about the proper use of the computer and internet and make sure to
monitor their online activities at home and school alike. They should only have
access to a computer located in a central area of your home and you should
regularly check all browser and email activity. A wise thing to is to use
parental control software that limits the type of sites the user can gain
access to. In schools, there should be restricted websites and other user
restrictions that will help protect the user and entity from cybercrime.
Likewise, companies should educate and have written policies governing the workplace
pc and its network use to diminish the risk of cybercrime against the company.

            One definite way to ensure that you
don’t fall victim of cybercrimes is to disconnect your computer entirely from
the internet. If there is no network, then you don’t have to worry about any cyber-attacks.
However, this option is not the most viable one in our interconnected society.
The truth is, it is up to you to take the necessary precautions to avoid
potential cybercrimes.






always be an ongoing challenge despite the advancements being made by numerous
countries. Most countries have their own laws to combat cybercrimes, but some
doesn’t have any new laws but solely relies on standard terrestrial law to
prosecute these crimes. Along with outdated laws to combat cybercrime, there
are still feeble penalties set in place to punish criminals, thus doing no
major prevention of cybercrimes’ which affect the economy and people’s social
lives on a large scale by those criminals. Consequently, there is a desperate
need for countries on a global scale to come together and decide on what
constitute a cybercrime, and develop ways in which to persecute criminals
across different countries.

is recommend that until sufficient legal actions can be put in place where
individual countries and global ways of persecution criminals, self-protection
remains the first line of defense. The everyday individuals and businesses need
to make sure they are educated on what to do in terms of prevent in becoming the
next victim of cybercrimes. This basic awareness can help prevent potential
cybercrimes against them.

It is almost impossible to reducecybercrime
from the cyber-space. Looking back on the many different acts passed, history
can be witness that no legislation has thrived in total eliminationof cybercrime
from the world. The only possible step is to make people aware of their rights
and duties and further making more punishable laws which is more stringent to
check them. Undoubtedly, the different Actswere and still are historical steps
in the virtual world as we know it. This further suggests that there is a need
to conveymodifications in the Information Technology Act so it can be more
effective to fightcybercrimes. Caution should be employedfor the
pro-legislation educational institutions that the requirements of the cyber laws
are not prepared so rigorous that it may delay the growth of the commerce and demonstrate
to be counter-productive to many.Remember, cybercriminals are evolving as well
in terms of computer knowledge per technological advancement made.

Nevertheless, business should employ
practices where their employees follow proper safety practices to ensure that
integrity and confidentially of stored information is kept at all times to
combat cybercrimes. Safety practices like ensuring that staying off game sites
on company time where viruses can be downloaded, forwarding chain emails,
leaving workstation unattended or password sharing over virtual mediums should
be prohibited. With all these safety practices implemented,it can be said that the
safety of many clients stored information is optimal.


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