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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder
that usually affect children and teens. This disorder can continue to adulthood
in some certain case. Patient with ADHD often hyperactivity and unable to
control their behavior. There is also another name for ADHD, which is,
Hyperkinetic Disorder (HD), that had been used by the World Health Organization
(WHO) because of it similar signs and symptoms of ADHD (The Editor of
Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017). The most common disorders had been used in
medicine researchers is ADHD or HD (Polanczyk, Biederman, Lima, Horta, and
Rohde, 2007). According to National Institute of Mental Health NIMH (2007),
estimated about three to seven percent, or more than two million school-age
children have this behavioral disorder. This means that at least one or two
children in a classroom suffered from ADHD throughout the United States.

          The exact cause of ADHD
is not fully confirmed by Scientists, yet, a combination of factor might contribute
to the ADHD. Several factors like genes, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, drug
use during pregnancy, low birth weight and brain injuries which contribute to
ADHD (NIMH, 2007). For example, when a mother during pregnancy is having smoke may
affects the baby to have hyperactivity and inattention (Barkley, 2000). According
to Barkley (2000), the scientific research on the cause of ADHD has focused on
disorders in the brain – either brain injuries or abnormal brain development. This
is because the imperfection in the brain that causes the behavioral disorder
that make people find so intolerable in a patient who has ADHD (Barkley, 1995).
However, this ADHD is not caused by parental failure to discipline or control
the child. It is not sign of some sort of inherent “badness” in the child
(Barkley, 2013).

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          Symptoms and behavior
that commonly found among patient with ADHD can be categorized into three
types, which are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The inattention is
defined as a person has difficulty in staying focus. This is because of patient
with ADHD are easily distracted and they experience difficulties concentrating
on any assignment (Rock, 2009). Then, the hyperactivity is defined as a person
like to move around frequently. Patient with ADHD may squirm, fidget, or run
around at the wrong times (Healthwise Staff, 2017). Besides, according to
Healthwise Staff (2017), adults with ADHD often feel anxious and fidgety. They
are not able to enjoy reading or other quiet activities. The impulsivity is defined
as a person always acting before thinking. It is also stated by Healthwise
staff (2017), patient with ADHD always use high voice pitch when communicating
with others that is unnecessary in that situation. Moreover, children with ADHD
may not be able to wait for their turn or to share. This makes it hard for them
to play with other children. Furthermore, ADHD is found to be more common in
males than females (Boyles, 2004). This can explain as boys are usually
clinic-referred due to oppositional, aggressive, and conduct behavior. However,
females with ADHD syndrome are difficult to pay attention because of
internalizing behaviors such as anxiety, social withdrawal, and depression
(Jamison, 2000). Other conditions, such as learning difficulties, and
behavioral disorder are common in patient with ADHD.

          Currently, there are no
exact cure for ADHD patients. However, some treatments are available to help
reduce symptoms and improve functioning. Example of treatments include
medication, psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments
(National Institute of Mental Health, 2016). These treatments have been demonstrated
to have short-term effects. In addition, behavior treatments such as parent training,
child-focus training and school-based intervention can be provided to ADHD
children (“Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder”, n.d.). Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (2017) declaimed that parent training in
behavior treatment has shown to strengthen the relationship between parent and
ADHD children, which indirectly decrease children’s problem behavior. However,
ADHD patient always talk in high voice pitch without being able to control
their voice pitch that used is not suitable in some surrounding. They may
create an uncomfortable situation for other people. Therefore, by using the
external technology, can help the ADHD patient to control voice pitch
immediately without influence to others. 

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