Contextual information is an information
category that defines whether information has the appropriate relevance,
wholeness and value added. Contextual information is concerned with information
that can be identified and recognised as being relevant to a context. Another element
includes: timeliness. Timeliness is the idea of how available information is
from a specific output whilst also being relevant. It also involves the amount
of information. Good information – in terms of contextual information- is information
that isn’t: flawed, supplies the right information with intent, as well as
being justifiable. In terms of having mis-representative data that is not
timely, business’ can attract wrong attention when it comes to publishing
in-correct facts/figures and statements. Information must be collected and
processed effectively for use at the right time. This is what we consider good
information, timely and has background.
Representational information is better
defined by how the information is received and processed, for example: format,
coherency and interpretability. These terms summarize the basic criteria of
information that we class as, “representational”. Representational information
is based on these fundamental terms because they describe exactly how
information should exist, so that it is clear and precise. The reason data must
be coherent is because badly presented information can be interpreted in the
wrong way, therefore meaning it is then processed wrongly. Information must have
a set of characteristics to keep it manageable, these include: complete,
formatted, referenced and cognitive. These terms describe practice of good
Information that is classed as being,
“accessible”, is found to be information that is easy to attain. The
information must have accessibility, as well as having access to the security
of information. Generally, the information is delivered in a way that allows
equal distribution and access. Information must have no prejudice and must
remain transparent. Accessibility information declares for those to record,
share and communicate information freely. Rules of accessibility are often
complex due to infrastructure of legality. Law has the ability to deter accessibility
dependent upon the context. However, characteristics of good accessibility come
as being: existing, valid, open, available and complete information. These
characteristics are used to define how accessibility can be improved or managed
to allow better communication and accessibility surrounding the information
Intrinsic information is information that
is believable, accurate, has the right reputation and can be questioned with
objectivity. The information must not support a bias or be bigoted in any way.
Neutrality of information is important. As well as being reliable, the
information sourced: must be believable. This means that those who use the
information must be able to trust in the authenticity of information. Information
must state the truth, along with being verifiable. Intrinsic data tend to have
the following characteristic: non-misleading, precise, honest, ethical and
generally, carry legitimacy (supplies raw information). These terms bare the
foundations to making intrinsic data accurate for purposeful use.
created by: sales, finance and purchasing:
Sales/marketing are responsible for the
advertisement of the business. In this case, the sales department advertise the
three holiday villages by using leaflets/brochures and other forms of exposure.
The sales team will often be found forming public relationships, along with
modelling the business target audience.
Based on the scenario, the sales department
manage booking s made by customers by creating booking requests and
transmitting them to the admin department via database notice for further
processing. The booking request copy is complete with all the booking
information. This is an internal structure that is repeated by the company to
maintain good information flow. The information that is transmitted to the
admin department will be used to inform other departments of a new booking.
This will allow other departments to receive and process the booking for the
customer to receive confirmation/invoice and a payment slip that can be used to
complete the booking.
The sales department also manage the online
services of the business by maintaining up-to-date: offers, price changes and
information about the business that customers may need to know. This creation
of informative information will be used by customers to decide as to which
booking they may choose.
The finance department is used to process
booking requests being transmitted by the admin department. As well as
processing the request, the department transmits new information from the
request into booking confirmations(invoice) and payment slips for the customer.
The invoice and payment slips are transmitted directly to the customer via post
or email. The invoice and payment slips are used to inform the customer that
their booking has been recognised, along with supplying them with a slip to
allow them to pay for their booking.
The finance department also receives
invoices from the warehouse department that informs them that a re-supply
purchase has been made and completed. The finance department are also in charge
of authorizing purchase orders made by the warehouse/distribution department.
This is done by signing a copy of the transmitted invoice and then authorizing
Financing also involves processing received
payment slips from customers, so that their booking can be approved. The
finance department create payment slips for customers to fill out and the send
back for their booking to be accepted. As well as completing exchanging
confirmation in payment, the finance department must also schedule payment to
all suppliers who have made deliveries within the month.
The purchasing department are the involved
in processing purchase orders sent by the warehouse department. These purchase
orders are evaluated and sent off to the stock/supplier using EDI (electronic
data interchange). This information is used to supply the business with the
required goods. The supplier then uses the attained “purchase order” to invoice
and dispatch goods. Using a purchase order is important, because it determines
exactly what the business requires.
Essentially, the purchasing department are
a determining factor as to how much stock is or isn’t available to the three
villages. The purchasing department is used as a middle man between the
warehouse (re-ordering) and the stock supplier. The primary use of the
purchasing department is to act as transit control between to two.
Customers send a booking request to the
sales/marketing team via the phone or online booking. The request is then
processed by the sales department which they will send a copy of the request to
the admin department. The admin department receive the booking request notice
and use this to send an email to the customer to inform the customer that their
booking request has been verified by admin. The Admin department then sends the
booking notice to the accounts/finance department via MIS. The finance
department then use this to forward a booking confirmation and payment slip to
the customer via the post or email. The customer then receives the notice and
uses the slip to pay the booking. The customer then sends the slip back to
finance via post for validation and confirmation.
The supplier’s main job is working with the
purchase department, as well as the finance department. The purchase department
sends a purchase order to the supplier using EDI to inform the supplier to what
is required. The supplier checks stock and outputs goods back to the warehouse department
along with a dispatch note and an invoice copy to the finance department via
MIS/database. The invoice will be used as a reference for the unique order. The
suppliers are also given payment at the end of each month from the
accounts/finance department using their accounting and payroll system.
Manually filling time sheets:
With regards to “good information”, the
current time sheet process proposes a range of problems. There a too many
potential risks for data transit to become corrupt. The system of recording
in/out times needs to become automated using a database and payroll system. The
information must remain accurate, reliable, updated and truthful. Currently,
reception staff and dispatch drivers manually fill out paper time sheets. These
time sheets then go through a range of processing methods/ staff to be used for
payroll. This system is vulnerable to human error and can be better managed to
secure data that is more accurate. I would suggest that the business employs a
time keeping transportation system. This would allow a much more efficient
approach to the situation. The employee who manages the payroll system can use
the village hardware and software to import time kept data of employee’s
working hours into a payroll software. The complexities of constant data
transit are eradicated, and employee working hours can be recorded and updated
to a payroll software simultaneously. The payroll software will also include
payment calculation based on working hours to compute wages. This will relieve
stress off all staffed roles within the current time sheet system and allow the
system to only require 1/2 employees.
Customers using pay slips through the post:
The main issue that Bonnington faces with
their customer pay slip, is that there is a larger possibility of customers not
receiving their confirmation letter and payment slip through the post. The
reliability of this system is dependent on un-controllable factors. These
factors include the mailing service, weather and other interceptions. I would
recommend that the communication between the finance department and the
customer is mostly done online. Using current recourses, Bonnington villages
would greatly benefit from using an automated booking software. This software
would allow the finance department to append data from the customer into an
existing output email that supplies the customer will the invoice, confirmation
and payment information. Not only does this make it easier for the business,
but also the customer, because they won’t have to post back a letter. The email
will be received by the customer for them to fill out and trigger a payment
response from that invoice for Bonnington to confirm.
Bonnington are not informed of supplier
Currently, Bonnington purchasing department
are blind to the current stock held by their suppliers. This is a problem
because, as well as not having enough stock in the warehouse department, the
purchasing department don’t know whether their request for stock is even valid.
To overcome this problem, I would suggest that the business employs a shared
documentation system between their warehouse, purchasing department and
suppliers. By doing this, Bonnington would use essential supplier chain
techniques to increase reliability and accuracy. These techniques include,
demand forecasting, order batching and lead time. Using these techniques allows
Bonnington to share details about when they might possibility run out of stock
which forecasts any future batches for suppliers to deal with. This system
enables for less hasty decisions and better-informed orders.