Currently, all forms of cancer are being discovered and examined in the world, and it is known to be one of the many diseases that could lead to an early death. Cancer is one of the most common life-threatening diseases of mankind, causing as many as 7.6 million deaths in a year, 64% from the economically developing world Krishnamurthy et al.,(2012).Breast cancer is one of the commonly diagnosed cancers, raising the mortality rate among women worldwide Rahaman et al., (2017). That is why many scientists and research groups, have started to a solution to this disease and its many forms. In many cases, people are looking at natural products and remedies to either ease the pain or potentially heal them. Moringa oleifera leaf comes into play, as it is a naturally grown product an easily assessable by anyone.Utilizing this advantage it is best to evaluate its potentials and properties in order to know how it can be beneficial for a human.
The drugs currently used in the cancer chemotherapy have shown adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, peripheral neuropathies, e. On the other hand, natural products have contributed immensely to cancer chemotherapy. A diverse number of chemical structures have been isolated from the natural sources and some have to lead to lead molecules, viz. Camptothecin and vincristine (Krishnamurthy et al.,2012).
In relation to its medicinal properties, Bukar et al.,(2010) stresses that the Moringa plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, kaempferol and other many phytochemicals that is why plants have been reported to contain large varieties of chemical substances that possess important preventive and curative therapies (Kalapana et al.,2013).
Some countries that are aware of the benefits and impact of the leaves, grow them as a food source and for various therapeutic purposes. According to Razis et al., (2014), Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant used as human food and alternative for medicinal purposes worldwide. It has been identified by researchers as a plant with numerous nutritional and medicinal advantages Moringa oleifera is an agent with chemotherapeutic and cytostatic activity on the human carcinoma cancer and may potentially become a therapeutic drug. (Rahaman et al., 2017).
Anwar et al., (2007) states Moringa oleifera is usually used in traditional medicine as ingredients because of its pharmacological properties. Some of the claimed properties, which had been proven in research were anti-bacteria and anti-tumor.
M. oleifera is a miracle tree with a great indigenous source of highly digestible proteins, Ca, Fe and vitamin C (Fahey, 2005). Some articles and research studies have reported that the dry leaves of M. oleifera contain seven times more vitamin C than an orange, 10 times vitamin A than carrot, 17 times calcium than milk, 15 times potassium than bananas, 25 times iron than spinach and nine times proteins than yogurt (Fuglie, 1999). In addition, it contains vitamin B complex, chromium, copper, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc (Fuglie, 2000). Thurber and Fahey (2009) stated M. oleifera leaves as a rich protein source, which can be used by doctors, nutritionists and community health conscious persons to solve worldwide malnutrition or undernutrition problems. According to researchers, Moringa has the potential to combat vitamin A and other micronutrient deficiencies (Nambiar, 2006).
The increasing occurrence of cancer has been associated with increased level of intracellular free radicals which causes detrimental effect to the cellular protein, lipid, and DNA leading to genomic instability and ultimately promotes cancer progression .therefore, scavenging the free radicals with antioxidant supplement would salvage the cells from oxidative stress and decrease the progression of cancer. Recent developments in cancer research showed promising results in the treatment of cancer research showed promising results in the results in the treatment of cancer at the molecular level with the use of plant compounds with fewer side effects.
Since ancient times, medicinal plants have been used for various disorders and diseases, the activity of which may attribute to phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, lignans, and curcuminoids.
Herbal medicines have shown to be effective approach for lung cancer therapy as they have proven to function in sensitizing conventional agents, prolonging patient survival time, preventing side effects of chemotherapy and improving quality of life in cancer patients (Kalaivani and Sumathy, 2015)
There is a cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera root on leukemia and melanoma cell lines. However, limited knowledge is available on the cytotoxic activity of Moringa oleifera seeds against MCF-7. MCF-7 is an estrogen positive breast cancer cell line usually employed as an in vitro model in breast cancer therapeutic research.Many chemotherapies capable of suppressing breast cancer growth and preventing metastasis are available, however, associated side effects such as immune system compromise, neutropenia, hypercalcemia among others are serious concerns to patients. Therefore, effective chemotherapy from natural plant source with less adverse effects and minimal toxicity to normal body systems is desirable (Abiola et al., 2017).
The objectives of this experiment were to extract Moringa oleifera leaves using soxhlet and sonication methods and compare the yields produced by these methods and To analyze the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity effect of the Moringa oleifera extracts.
With knowledge of the impact and effect of cancer on the human body, various reaches are being done to find the ultimate solution to this problem. Many people are taking various medicines which may have various side effects.Therefore, this research’s aim is to find out the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera compared to the modern medicines. In using a plant such as Moringa oleifera, various advantages come in to play such as its accessibility, not costly and will have minimal toxic or side effects as compared to conventional methods.
The significance of this study is to gain an insight into various extraction method and to identify the phytochemicals present in Moringa oleifera.Disc diffusion will interpret the zone of inhibition