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Security: Is it safe?

One of the most problematic elements of cybersecurity is the
quickly and constantly evolving nature of security risks. Rouse, M. (2016,
May 11). cybersecurity. Retrieved from The traditional approach has been to
focus most resources on the most crucial system components and protect against
the biggest known threats, which necessitated leaving some less important
system components undefended and some less dangerous risks not protected
against. Such an approach is insufficient in the current environment. Adam
Vincent, CTO-public sector at Layer 7 Technologies (a security services
provider to federal agencies including Defense Department organizations),
describes the problem as “to deal with the current environment, advisory
organizations are promoting a more proactive and adaptive approach”. The
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), for example, recently issued updated
guidelines in its risk assessment framework that recommended a shift toward continuous
monitoring and real-time assessments. Cybersecurity is
the body of technologies, processes and practices designed to protect networks,
computers, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorized access. Cybersecurity analysts help prevent attacks through their expertise
and knowledge of databases, networks, hardware, firewalls and encryption. They
keep computer systems running smoothly, prevent the theft of financial and
personal information, and block intruders from accessing and divulging proprietary

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The main issue with the online web especially at this day
and age when technology is rapidly improving, is the question whether is it
safe? This is the issue that will be investigated to check and ensure how safe
is the internet with the introduction of cyber security. There has been a risk
of cyber hacking where an unknown individual infiltrates your technological
device and gains control and access to personal and sensitive information. Hence
the introduction of cyber security, a form of barrier that can stop or at least
make the life of hackers more difficult was put in place. However the question
arises asking how well does cyber security fare against this hackers as
technology and people are getting smarter as each day passes. This are the
problems that will be answered.

This problem has been faced ever since the technological era
begun. This allowed individuals to gain access to personal information that
people store in their computer or phones. Not only that, this information can
be used for monetary gain or can be used to ruin someone’s life. This problem
was initially said to be resolved by cyber security but after some time the
hackers have found a way pass cyber security and are still capable of
infiltrating your computer or phone the internet, online downloads or even
uploads. This problem is a very intriguing issue as there are many perspectives
that can be addressed. The perspective that will be addressed is whether cyber
security is safe and whether it can prevent hackers from gaining information
through infiltrating someone’s computer or phone. Cyber security has raised a
lot of questions from the public such as whether it is effective or just a
delay for hackers instead of a prevention. Not only that, cyber security has
also been theorized as a way for the government to keep track of the publics
antics and activities. A vast majority of the society feels that cyber security
was introduced to allow the government to keep track of transactions and
communication between individuals to prevent any outbreak or rebelliousness by
the public. In this study all this questions shall be answered as this study is
being conducted to answer the question of whether cyber security is safe or is
it just a scam.



This research will be studying how
effective cyber security is in this modern day and age where the risk of cyber
attacks is at and all time high and personal information of individuals can be
accessed from anyone at anytime from anywhere. This research will have a survey
form given to random individuals of both genders(male and female) between the
ages of 18 to 25.This survey form is filled with a series of question that will
provide the research with adequate information from a sample size of 100 to 150
individuals that are studying in Sunway College. This research chose Sunway
College students because they are IT savvy students that have experience with
technology as does the real world during this era. This will allow us to get a
realistic view on how effective is cyber security in this modern day and age.


This research will be using
quantitative methods to obtain the information required to make support my
hypothesis on this topic which is cyber security is effective and are reducing
the cyber attacks drastically. Quantitative method will be used for this
research as the statistics of the amount of people that have the cyber security
software will be placed in a graph against the amount of people that have been
hacked. This will show the relationship on how effective cyber security is
against cyber attacks.


This research will have to collect
data on the individuals personal experience with cyber security and how it
reduces the possible cyber attacks from hackers. This will be done by a survey
that will be given to random individuals of mixed genders between the age of 18
to 25. The survey will have a series of questions that will give the research
the adequate amount of information needed to form a conclusion. Example of the
survey is :

The data for this research will be analyzed
by a graph that will compare and contrast the amount of individuals that have
cyber security software against the amount of people that have faced cyber
attacks before. This will show the relationship whether cyber security actually
helps against cyber attacks. This will also help the research form a conclusion
for this topic on cyber security.

This research will figure out how
effective is cyber security against cyber attacks. This will prove important as
this will allow us to improve our cyber security software to deal with threats
such as cyber attacks. This research will also allow us to understand the risk
of cyber attacks and how hackers can infiltrate personal information of any
individual and anytime and place without any problems. These are the questions
this research will solve.





References (Wolters, 2017)

Singer, P. W. (2014). Cybersecurity and Cyberwar.

Wolters, P. T. (2017). The security of personal data
under the GDPR: a harmonized duty or a shared responsibility? . nternational
Data Privacy Law, Volume 7, Issue 3,, 165-178.


Findings and


This chapter of the research paper
will show the results of the study and further discussion based on the study.
To start off, we will read the overall data received from the findings through
statistical calculations and will then look into the research questions the
study wants to answer. The goal of the survey was to gain knowledge about cyber
security to answer the question whether it is safe and also to answer how safe
is it. Through the survey method used these questions were answered.

Quantitative analysis was used to
identify and study the percentages to answer the questions in the survey. All
participants answered all the questions put forth therefore all questions will
be deduced and analyzed in a percentage based chart to help understand the
results better.

A total of 87 surveys were handed out
but only 50 will be used for this study. The selected forms met the required
hypothesis previously mentioned which is ,is cyber security safe?. This
represents 57.5% of the expected population. Thus, the response rate is

A total 12 surveys were not fully
completed therefore they were disregarded from the study. Furthermore, 15
surveys were omitted as the participants did not answer the questions with
adequate answers.

The survey form contained 10
questions that were separated into 3 sections. The first section was to know
the participants age and whether or not the participant understood the topic.
The second section was to get the participants opinion on the topic of study.
Lastly, the third section was to see whether the participants did what was
required to do to allow the cyber security software to run efficiently.

For the first section participants
were required to state their age, how often do they use technological devices,
have they ever been connected to public or open wi-fi and have they encountered
such cases such as hacking of social media accounts or virus implants to their
device. All participants responded to these questions. 30 participants were in
the age group of 18 to 19 years old (78.5%) and made up the majority of the sample
whereas 21.3% was above the majority age group with ages ranging from 20 to 25
years old.


In response to what participants
opinions were based on cyber security and how they felt  towards to ever growing technological side of
things, majority of participants did not feel threatened by the pace technology
was growing at whereas 30 % of participants felt threatened by the fact that
personal information could be leaked at any moment by anyone at anytime. ” Cybersecurity is concerned with the study of
protection of information — stored and processed by computer-based systems —
that is vulnerable to unintended exposure and misuse.” (Tyler Moore,


For the third section the
participants were asked if they had the required software and took the required
precautionary steps to allow the cyber security software to run efficiently and
keep the device safe from cyber attacks. The first thing required to prevent
cyber attacks is to have an anti virus software in their device to help stop or
get rid of virus implants or cyber attacks that may occur. 70% of participants
have anti virus software in their device whereas 30% of the participants either
did not know how to get an anti virus software in their device or were just lazy
to download an anti virus software.

Furthermore, the participants were
asked if they run regular virus scans on their device. This ensures there are
no dormant viruses in their device and the software can run without
interruptions. Majority of the participants ran regular virus checks whereas
42.5% of the participants did not run regular virus checks as they felt it was
too much work. Regular virus checks has to be made to ensure that the anti
virus program may do its job by stopping virus attacks.


Lastly, the participants were asked
if their antivirus systems had ever failed them before. For example, as the
participant was browsing the internet their computer gets implanted with a
virus that was caused by a pop up. Majority of the participants stated that
their antivirus systems is yet to fail them, with the minority of 2% stating
that their antivirus software has not detected a virus that stayed dormant in
the devices mainframe. As majority suggest cyber security which can also be
called antivirus software is effective against cyber attacks or virus.

To answer the research questions,
which are how effective is cyber security against cyber attacks and the risk of
cyber attacks and how hackers can infiltrate personal information. To answer
the first, as shown by these findings and discussions it proves that cyber
security is extremely effective against cyber attacks as it shows that 98% of
the participants did not suffer from cyber attacks due to their cyber security
software. In addition to that, this study also shows us that hackers can use
pop ups from websites and illegitimate downloading to infiltrate our personal
devices to gain personal information but this can be overcome as antivirus
software also known as cyber security will notify us and clear the device of
this hackers and their viruses.

Literature Review

This section of this research paper
will discuss a general overview of past papers that studied Cyber Security and
its safety and efficiency. While considering the nature of this paper, a total
of eight past research papers have been used as reference for this study.
However, in this section, only five research papers will be reviewed, and
opinions and suggestions will be commented on regarding the quality of the

English on Antivirus Software

The first research paper used was a
paper written by Hisyam Syarif. In this paper, the aim was to understand the
software on the computer, especially in discussing about the antivirus is very
important to protect the computer. The benefits in this paper are knowing the
antivirus software on the computer and whether it is effective and efficient.
Antivirus is a type of software used to detect existing viruses on the computer
system. Antivirus software also known as virus protection software. With this
software we can find out whether a computer system is exposed to a virus or
not. In general, this software runs in the background or the background, and
also perform a scan of all files that are accessed. In today’s antivirus
Progress has been transformed and has many uses associated with the virus. But
also the computer’s performance. The virus code also usually always updated by
the antivirus developer. So the computer is ensured its empowering. Even by new
viruses though. Other uses of the antivirus is detecting or scanning the data
on a computer as a whole. Furthermore, the data is processed and sorted when
there is a virus or a file in which if harmful, then the antivirus will give a
signal to the user.
Based on the results of
the issue of antivirus discussed, the writer took the conclusion that we as
user / users to be more aware of the software, and the problems on the
computer, especially the antivirus software because it is an important role to
protect. On completion of this paper the writer concluded that the best
antivirus is, Bit defender Antivirus plus Anti-Virus is an antivirus that is
number 1 in the world. Excellent prowess in dealing with viruses that are very
difficult to destroy. AntiVirus that leads to a user who has a problem on the
PC in case of a virus.. Benefits antivirus on your computer are, prevent
viruses and spyware attacks, both attacks through the internet or through
removable media such as flash or memory card.

In this research paper, the various
sources of references used for the study were listed. Overall, the paper was
well organised and easy to understand. The researcher reflected back on pass
studies and improved on the limitations of other researches, improving their
experiment in the process.

A Privacy-Preserving Approach for
Collecting Evidence in Forensic Investigation

This paper was written by Shuhui Hou, Siu-Ming Yiu, Tetsutaro Uehara and Ryoichi Sasakis. Computer-related and cyber crimes are
becoming rampant and caused a lot of damages to business, the public and the
governments. Collecting digital evidence from storage device(s) is a crucial
step in the investigation phase. However, with the development of computing
technology (e.g., cloud system), evidence collection techniques developed for
single PC or small-scale systems such as cloning the harddisks become
infeasible as potential evidence may be distributed on a large number of
servers. Moreover, the privay issue is another major concern. The servers under
investigation may store data from thousands or even more irrelevant users. The
investigator may have no rights to access the irrelevant data, in particular,
some of them may involve confidential information. A trivial solution is to ask
the server administrator to retrieve only the data relevant to the crime (or
the suspect) and hand this to the investigator. This simple solution also may
not work since the investigator may not want the administrator to know what he
is looking for due to specific nature of the crimes. This motivates us to study
the problem of how to efficiently retrieve relevant data (i,e., evidential data)
from a huge amount of data while preserving the privacy of irrelevant users.

In this paper, we assume that the
server administrator is willing to cooperate, search the relevant data, and
return all located data to the investigator whenever a warrant is provided. We
aim at solutions that can satisfy the following requirements.(1)
Privacy – The
investigator cannot learn anything related to the irrelevant data stored in the
Confidentiality – The
server administrator who performs the search does not know what the
investigator is looking for.(3)
Integrity and
authenticity – The integrity and authenticity of the data need to be
Efficiency – The
solutions must be reasonably fast.(5) Multiple investigators – There are more and more cases that
involve multiple investigators. The solution must be extendable to handle
multiple investigators efficiently.

This papers results and data were
very organized and easy to understand. This paper had a logical and
professional idea on how cyber security can be use for privacy preserving in
the context of collecting evidence for forensic investigations.

 The Security
Implications Of the Internet of Things

This paper was written by Dr.  Chris 
Rose, a consultant  with  Rosenco, 
Inc.,  Florida.The major problem we face with the IoT (Internet of Things) is that
computing is now embedded into the hardware itself and although these  embedded 
systems  have  multiple 
vulnerabilities  there  is 
no  good  method 
of  patching  them. 
The  embedded system market is
much different from the computer market. An embedded system is typically
powered by a special type of computer chip made by companies, such as Broadcom
or Marvel, they are cheap and have very little profit. Since  everything 
is  now  getting 
connected  to  the Internet, 
this  creates  an additional 
security  risk  for 
society  as  a whole. As infrastructure, such as dams and
power plants and as governments, cities, houses and cars get connected there is
an increasing risk of a catastrophe.  We
are reaching the point where our systems are getting too big to fail, but
eventually they will.

This paper was very well made as it
had everything a research paper should have and it was very organized, neat and
well done. This paper was easy to read and easy to use to assist me in my
research paper.


Hacking and Legislation

This paper was written by Kimberly Pavlik of Walden
University, USA. With increased social networking and the ability to make more
online purchases, personal information is 
required  in  order 
to  utilize  these 
sites.  Personal  and 
private  information,  such 
as  bank  account numbers  and 
credit  cards  numbers, 
are  linked  through 
individual  profiles  created 
by  users.  Credit card information is stored for
purchases and personal data remains saved within the user’s online account.
Consumers assume that their personal information is stored securely when shopping
online on sites such as Amazon, or interacting on  social 
media  sites  like 
Facebook  (FB).What  consumers 
fail  to  realize 
is  that  every 
time  they  conduct a 
search online, they are compromising their own privacy if they do not
activate their user settings on social networking sites. As technology continues to evolve around the globe,
people should be concerned with the type of information they post  on 
social  media  and 
networking  sites.  Individuals 
should remain vigilant in  an  effort 
to secure  their  personal information online in order to
reduce the chance of being hacked and a victim of criminal activity. It is apparent
that securing personal information, while accessing online social networking
sites, has become a challenge for many users (Henson,  Reyns, 
Fisher,  2011). 
Therefore,  this  article 
explains  what  a hacker 
is  and  gives 
an  overview  of  the
evolution of cybercrime, and its influence on current legislation.

Cyber Security and
Mobile Threats: The Need for Antivirus Applications for Smart Phones

This paper was written by Jorja Wright, Maurice E
Dawson Jr. and Marwan Omar to explain the need for antivirus for smart phones
to ensure its safety of data. Currently,
smartphones are the preferred device for web browsing, emailing, using social media and
making purchases. Unfortunately, the
popularity of smartphones is a breeding ground for cyber attackers. Operating
systems on smartphones do not contain security software to protect data. For
example, traditional security software found in personal computers
(PCs), such as firewalls, antivirus, and encryption, is not currently available
in smartphones (Ruggiero, 2011). Cyber attackers can use this gap in security
to their advantage. Thus, this illustrates
the importance
of having a security policy for mobile phones.

This paper is very well organized but
does not follow the format of a research paper as it is missing multiple
stages of a research paper and it also lacks proper citations. This research paper is a well done
paper but lacks proper explaining of how its findings and results were found.
Yet this paper answered the questions I had regarding this study and assisted
me in my research paper.

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