Hypnotherapy is therapy that is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis.  The word “hypnosis” (from the Greek hypnos, “sleep”) is an abbreviation of James Braid’s (1841) term “neuro-hypnotism”, meaning “sleep of the nervous system”. A person who is hypnotized displays certain unusual characteristics and propensities, compared with a non-hypnotized subject, most notably hyper-suggestibility, which some authorities have considered a sine qua non of hypnosis. For example, Clark L.
Hull, probably the first major empirical researcher in the field, wrote, If a subject after submitting to the hypnotic procedure shows no genuine increase in susceptibility to any suggestions whatever, there seems no point in calling him hypnotised…  Hypnotherapy is often applied in order to modify a subject’s behavior, emotional content, and attitudes, as well as a wide range of conditions including dysfunctional habits, anxiety, stress-related illness, pain management, and personal development. Contents * 1 Definition * 1. Hypnotism versus mesmerism * 2 Definition of Hypnotherapist * 3 Modalities * 3. 1 Traditional hypnotherapy * 3. 2 Hypnoanalysis * 3. 3 Ericksonian hypnotherapy * 3. 4 Cognitive/behavioral hypnotherapy * 4 Uses * 4. 1 Medical hypnosis * 4. 1. 1 Hypnosis in childbirth * 4. 1. 2 Hypnosis in surgery * 4. 2 Psychotherapy * 5 Research * 5. 1 Systematic reviews * 5. 1. 1 1890s * 5. 1. 2 1950s * 5. 1. 3 1990s * 5. 1. 4 2001 Report * 5. 2 Meta-analyses * 6 History * 7 Training * 7. Professional membership boards * 7. 1. 1 USA * 7. 1. 1. 1 US Definition of Hypnotherapist * 7. 1. 2 United Kingdom * 7. 1. 2. 1 UK National Occupational Standards * 7. 1. 2. 2 UK Confederation of Hypnotherapy Organisations (UKCHO) * 7. 1. 2. 3 Working Group for Hypnotherapy Regulation * 7. 1. 3 Indian Restriction * 7. 1. 4 Australia * 8 Techniques * 9 In popular culture * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links | Definition Hypnotism versus mesmerism
Hypnotism is often, mistakenly, thought to be the same as mesmerism, its historical precursor. According to Hans Eysenck, The terms “mesmerise” and “hypnotise” have become quite synonymous, and most people think of Mesmer as the father of hypnosis, or at least as its discoverer and first conscious exponent. Oddly enough, the truth appears to be that while hypnotic phenomena had been known for many thousands of years, Mesmer did not, in fact, hypnotise his subjects at all. It is something of a mystery why popular belief should have firmly credited him with a discovery which in fact was made by others. Eysenck, Sense & Nonsense in Psychology, 1957: 30-31) Franz Anton Mesmer held that trance and healing were the result of the channelling of a mysterious “occult” force called “animal magnetism. ” In the mid-18th Century, this became the basis of a very large and popular school of thought termed “Mesmerism”. However, in 1843, the Scottish surgeon James Braid proposed the theory of hypnotism as a radical alternative, in opposition to Mesmerism. Braid argued that the occult qualities of Mesmerism were illusory and that its effects were due to a combination of “nervous fatigue” and verbal suggestion.
A bitter war of words developed between Braid and the leading exponents of Mesmerism. I beg farther to remark, if my theory and pretensions, as to the nature, cause, and extent of the phenomena of nervous sleep [i. e. , hypnotism] have none of the fascinations of the transcendental to captivate the lovers of the marvellous, the credulous and enthusiastic, which the pretensions and alleged occult agency of the mesmerists have, still I hope my views will not be the less acceptable to honest and sober-minded men, because they are all level to our comprehension, and reconcilable with well-known physiological and psychological principles. James Braid, Hypnotic Therapeutics, 1853: 36) However, there is agreement that the origin of modern hypnosis is with the methods employed in Mesmerism. Whilst Braid differed in offering an explanation of hypnotitc effects that did not rely on supernatual forces, he credited the methods used in hypnosis to the practice of Mesmerism. Braid said of the subject: Hypnotism might therefore not inaptly be designated, Rational Mesmerism, in contra-distinction to the Transcendental Mesmerism of the Mesmerists. 2] In their original committee report on hypnotherapy, the British Medical Association (BMA), likewise, made a point of condemning the occult theories of Mesmerism and sharply distinguishing them from hypnotism. The Committee, having completed such investigation of hypnotism as time permitted, have to report that they have satisfied themselves of the genuineness of the hypnotic state. No phenomena which have come under their observation, however, lend support to the theory of ‘animal magnetism’. “Report on Hypnotism”, British Medical Journal, 1892). Whereas Mesmerism is a supernatural theory, hypnotism attempted to explain the same phenomena in terms of psychology and physiology. As Braid puts it, it is a scientific and “psycho-physiological” (mind-body) discipline. There is no doubt that some individuals have suffered the ill effects of being involved in stage hypnotic shows. Stage hypnotists use words like ‘magic’ and ‘control’ in an attempt to mystify the effects of hypnosis.
In addition, using various tests of hypnotic suggestibility, they focus on ‘hypnotic virtuosos’ and provide the audience with hours of entertainment at the participants’ expense. Trained hypnotherapists, or rather therapists who use hypnosis as an adjunct to their treatment programme, create an environment by which the clients can access their inner resources in their own, unique way. Therapists, unlike stage hypnotists, who give the illusion that individuals are ‘out of control’, give the control to the individuals.  Definition of Hypnotherapist
A therapist who utilizes hypnosis as a primary tool for assisting clients to achieve their goals. A Hypnotherapist often differs from others therapists by focusing on the role of subconscious behaviors and influences on the client’s life. In 1973, Dr. John Kappas, Founder of the Hypnosis Motivation Institute, wrote and defined the profession of a Hypnotherapist in the Federal Dictionary of Occupational Titles: “Induces hypnotic state in client to increase motivation or alter behavior patterns: Consults with client to determine nature of problem.
Prepares client to enter hypnotic state by explaining how hypnosis works and what client will experience. Tests subject to determine degree of physical and emotional suggestibility. Induces hypnotic state in client, using individualized methods and techniques of hypnosis based on interpretation of test results and analysis of client’s problem. May train client in self-hypnosis conditioning. “ Modalities Hypnotherapy takes many different forms, and has integrated elements from, and in turn influenced, other psychotherapeutic traditions throughout its history. Traditional hypnotherapy
The form of hypnotherapy practiced by most Victorian hypnotists, including James Braid and Hippolyte Bernheim, mainly employed direct suggestion of symptom removal, with some use of therapeutic relaxation and occasionally aversion to alcohol, drugs, etc.  This simple form of treatment employed relatively direct methods and few theoretical constructs, but has continued to influence most subsequent forms of hypnotherapy. Hypnoanalysis In 1895 Sigmund Freud and Joseph Breuer published a seminal clinical text entitled Studies in Hysteria (1895) which promoted a new approach to psychotherapy.
Freud and Breuer used hypnosis to regress clients to an earlier age in order to help them remember and abreact supposedly repressed traumatic memories. Although Freud gradually abandoned hypnotherapy in favour of his developing method of psychoanalysis, his early work continued to influence many subsequent hypnotherapists. However, as Freud later conceded, his French rival Pierre Janet had already published a case study describing the use of age regression in hypnotic psychotherapy, a few years earlier. Subsequent regression hypnotherapy was sometimes known as “hypnoanalysis”, “analytic hypnotherapy”, or “psychodynamic hypnotherapy. Many practitioners worked in ways that bore only faint resemblance to Freud’s original approach, although others continued to be influenced by later psychoanalytic theory and practice. Hypnoanalysis found support in both world wars where it was used by military psychiatrists as a rapid alternative to psychoanalysis in the treatment of shellshock, now known as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Considerable controversy developed regarding the use of regression to uncover allegedly repressed memories in the 1990s as the result of several high-profile legal cases, where clients sued their therapists over claims of false memory syndrome.
Ericksonian hypnotherapy Milton H. Erickson was one of the most influential hypnotists of the 20th century. From around the 1950s onward, Erickson developed a radically different approach to hypnotism, which has subsequently become known as “Ericksonian hypnotherapy” or “Neo-Ericksonian hypnotherapy. ” Erickson made use of a more informal conversational approach with many clients and complex language patterns, and therapeutic strategies. However, this very divergence from tradition led some of his colleagues, most notably Andre Weitzenhoffer, to dispute whether Erickson was right to label his approach “hypnosis” at all. 6] Nevertheless, Erickson’s work continues to be one of the most influential forces in modern hypnotherapy. The founders of Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP), a methodology similar in some regards to hypnotism, claimed that they had modelled the work of Erickson extensively and assimilated it into their approach called the Milton Model.  Weitzenhoffer disputed whether NLP bears any genuine resemblance to Erickson’s work.  Cognitive/behavioral hypnotherapy Cognitive behavioural hypnotherapy (CBH) is an integrated psychological therapy employing clinical hypnosis and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).
In 1974, Theodore Barber and his colleagues published an influential review of the research which argued, following the earlier social psychology of Theodore R. Sarbin, that hypnotism was better understood not as a “special state” but as the result of normal psychological variables, such as active imagination, expectation, appropriate attitudes, and motivation.  Barber introduced the term “cognitive-behavioral” to describe the nonstate theory of hypnotism, and discussed its application to behavior therapy.
The growing application of cognitive and behavioral psychological theories and concepts to the explanation of hypnosis paved the way for a closer integration of hypnotherapy with various cognitive and behavioral therapies. However, many cognitive and behavioral therapies were themselves originally influenced by older hypnotherapy techniques, e. g. , the systematic desensitisation of Joseph Wolpe, the cardinal technique of early behavior therapy, was originally called “hypnotic desensitisation” and derived from the Medical Hypnotism (1948) of Lewis Wolberg.
The traditional style of hypnotherapy can be seen as a precursor of cognitive-behavioral therapy insofar as both place emphasis upon “common sense” theoretical explanations and the use of relaxation, and rehearsal of positive ideas and imagery in therapy. Modern cognitive therapy primarily differs from previous hypnotherapy approaches by placing much greater emphasis upon the direct Socratic disputation of negative beliefs. However, cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapists have assimilated this technique alongside their use of hypnosis.
From the 1980s onward various clinical textbooks about CBH were written by researchers such as Steven Jay Lynn, Irving Kirsch, E. Thomas Dowd, William Golden, and Assen Alladin. Uses Medical hypnosis Hypnosis in childbirth Main article: Hypnotherapy in childbirth Hypnotherapy has long been used in relation to childbirth. It is used during pregnancy to prepare a mother for birth, and during childbirth to reduce anxiety, discomfort and pain.  Hypnosis in surgery Main article: Hypnosurgery In the middle of the 19th century, Mesmerists used hypnosis to alleviate pain and distress during surgery.
Most notably, James Esdaile in India and John Elliotson in England were renowned for their work in this area. The founder of hypnotherapy, James Braid was a surgeon himself, specialising in muscular conditions, and reported many cases of minor surgery using hypnotism. Psychotherapy Hypnotism was originally used to treat the condition known in the Victorian era as hysteria. Modern hypnotherapy is widely used in the treatment of anxiety, subclinical depression, and certain habit disorders, as well as in the treatment of conditions such as insomnia.  Research Systematic reviews 890s In 1892, the British Medical Association (BMA) commissioned a team of doctors to undertake an extensive evaluation of the nature and effects of hypnotherapy, they reported, The Committee, having completed such investigation of hypnotism as time permitted, have to report that they have satisfied themselves of the genuineness of the hypnotic state. (British Medical Journal, 1892) Adding, The Committee are of opinion that as a therapeutic agent hypnotism is frequently effective in relieving pain, procuring sleep, and alleviating many functional ailments [i. e. psycho-somatic complaints and anxiety disorders]. (Ibid. ) This report was approved by the general council of the BMA, thereby forming BMA policy and rendering hypnotherapy a form of “orthodox”, as opposed to complementary or alternative, medicine. Subsequent research on hypnotherapy has tended to highlight three main areas in which its efficacy as a treatment has been demonstrated, 1. Anxiety 2. Insomnia 3. Pain management 4. Psycho-somatic disorder, i. e. , stress-related illness Hypnotherapy has many other applications but research into its effectiveness has tended to focus upon these issues.
More mixed results have been obtained for its efficacy in relation to the treatment of addictions, an area where high relapse is common with most treatments. 1950s In 1955, the Psychological Medicine Group of the BMA commissioned a Subcommittee, led by Prof. T. Ferguson Rodger, to deliver a second, and more comprehensive, report on hypnosis. The Subcommittee consulted several experts on hypnosis from various fields, including the eminent neurologist Prof. W. Russell Brain, the 1st Baron Brain, and the psychoanalyst Wilfred Bion.
After two years of study and research, its final report was published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ), under the title ‘Medical use of Hypnotism’. The terms of reference were: To consider the uses of hypnotism, its relation to medical practice in the present day, the advisability of giving encouragement to research into its nature and application, and the lines upon which such research might be organized. (British Medical Journal, 1955) This is a much more thorough and extensive report, and constitutes one of the most significant documents in the history of hypnotherapy research.
With regard to efficacy, it concludes from a systematic review of available research that, The Subcommittee is satisfied after consideration of the available evidence that hypnotism is of value and may be the treatment of choice in some cases of so-called psycho-somatic disorder and Psychoneurosis. It may also be of value for revealing unrecognized motives and conflicts in such conditions. As a treatment, in the opinion of the Subcommittee it has proved its ability to remove symptoms and to alter morbid habits of thought and behavior[… In addition to the treatment of psychiatric disabilities, there is a place for hypnotism in the production of anesthesia or analgesia for surgical and dental operations, and in suitable subjects it is an effective method of relieving pain in childbirth without altering the normal course of labor. (“Medical use of hypnosis”, British Medical Journal, April, 1955) According to a statement of proceedings published elsewhere in the same edition of the BMJ, the report was officially ‘approved at last week’s Council meeting of the British Medical Association. (BMA Council Proceedings, BMJ, April 23, 1955:1019). In other words, it was approved as official BMA policy. This statement goes on to say that, For the past hundred years there has been an abundance of evidence that psychological and physiological changes could be produced by hypnotism which were worth study on their own account, and also that such changes might be of great service in the treatment of patients. British Medical Journal, cited) Soon afterwards, in 1958, the American Medical Association (AMA) commissioned a similar (though more terse) report which endorses the 1955 BMA report and concludes, That the use of hypnosis has a recognized place in the medical armamentarium and is a useful technique in the treatment of certain illnesses when employed by qualified medical and dental personnel. “Medical use of hypnosis”, JAMA, 1958) Again, the AMA council approved this report rendering hypnotherapy an orthodox treatment, The Reference Committee on Hygiene, Public Health, and Industrial Health approved the report and commended the Council on Mental Health for its work. The House of Delegates adopted the Reference Committee report [… ](AMA Proceedings, JAMA, September 1958: 57) 1990s In 1995, the US National Institute for Health (NIH), established a Technology Assessment Conference that compiled an official statement entitled “Integration of Behavioral & Relaxation Approaches into the Treatment of Chronic Pain & Insomnia”.
This is an extensive report that includes a statement on the existing research in relation to hypnotherapy for chronic pain. It concludes that: The evidence supporting the effectiveness of hypnosis in alleviating chronic pain associated with cancer seems strong. In addition, the panel was presented with other data suggesting the effectiveness of hypnosis in other chronic pain conditions, which include irritable bowel syndrome, oral mucositis [pain and swelling of the mucus membrane], temporomandibular disorders [jaw pain], and tension headaches. NIH, 1995) In 1999, the British Medical Journal (BMJ) published a Clinical Review of current medical research on hypnotherapy and relaxation therapies, it concludes, * “There is strong evidence from randomised trials of the effectiveness of hypnosis and relaxation for cancer related anxiety, pain, nausea, and vomiting, [side effects of chemotherapy] particularly in children. ” * “They are also effective for panic disorders and insomnia, particularly when integrated into a package of cognitive therapy (including, for example, sleep hygiene). * “A systematic review has found that hypnosis enhances the effects of cognitive behavioural therapy for conditions such as phobia, obesity, and anxiety. ” * “Randomized controlled trials support the use of various relaxation techniques for treating both acute and chronic pain, [… ]” * “Randomized trials have shown hypnosis to be of value in asthma and in irritable bowel syndrome [… ]” * “Some practitioners also claim that relaxation techniques, particularly the use of imagery, can prolong life.
There is currently insufficient evidence to support this claim. ” 2001 Report In 2001, the Professional Affairs Board of the British Psychological Society (BPS) commissioned a working party of expert psychologists to publish a report entitled The Nature of Hypnosis.  Its remit was ‘to provide a considered statement about hypnosis and important issues concerning its application and practice in a range of contexts, notably for clinical purposes, forensic investigation, academic research, entertainment and training. ‘ The report provides a concise (c. 0 pages) summary of the current scientific research on hypnosis. It opens with the following introductory remark: “Hypnosis is a valid subject for scientific study and research and a proven therapeutic medium. ” With regard to the therapeutic uses of hypnosis, the report said: “Enough studies have now accumulated to suggest that the inclusion of hypnotic procedures may be beneficial in the management and treatment of a wide range of conditions and problems encountered in the practice of medicine, psychiatry and psychotherapy. The working party then provided an overview of some of the most important contemporary research on the efficacy of clinical hypnotherapy, which is summarized as follows: * “There is convincing evidence that hypnotic procedures are effective in the management and relief of both acute and chronic pain and in assisting in the alleviation of pain, discomfort and distress due to medical and dental procedures and childbirth. ” * “Hypnosis and the practice of self-hypnosis may significantly reduce general anxiety, tension and stress in a manner similar to other relaxation and self-regulation procedures. * “Likewise, hypnotic treatment may assist in insomnia in the same way as other relaxation methods. ” * “There is encouraging evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of hypnotherapeutic procedures in alleviating the symptoms of a range of complaints that fall under the heading ‘psychosomatic illness. ” These include tension headaches and migraine; asthma; gastro-intestinal complaints such as irritable bowel syndrome; warts; and possibly other skin complaints such as eczema, psoriasis and urticaria [hives]. “There is evidence from several studies that its [hypnosis’] inclusion in a weight reduction program may significantly enhance outcome. “ However the report also expresses reservations about hypnosis, e. g. that it is no more effective than other therapies;, and that its reliability e. g. for retrieving memories is often exaggerated. Meta-analyses In 2003, a meta-analysis of the efficacy of hypnotherapy was published by two researchers from the university of Konstanz in Germany, Flammer and Bongartz.
The study examined data on the efficacy of hypnotherapy across the board, though studies included mainly related to psychosomatic illness, test anxiety, smoking cessation and pain control during orthodox medical treatment. Most of the better research studies used traditional-style hypnosis, only a minority (19%) employed Ericksonian hypnosis. The authors considered a total of 444 studies on hypnotherapy published prior to 2002. By selecting the best quality and most suitable research designs for meta-analysis they narrowed their focus down to 57 controlled trials.
These showed that on average hypnotherapy achieved at least 64% success compared to 37% improvement among untreated control groups. (Based on the figures produced by binomial effect size display or BESD. ) According to the authors this was an intentional underestimation. Their professed aim was to discover whether, even under the most skeptical weighing of the evidence, hypnotherapy was still proven effective. They showed conclusively that it was. In fact, their analysis of treatment designs concluded that expansion of the meta-analysis to include non-randomized trials for this data base would also produce reliable results.
When all 133 studies deemed suitable in light of this consideration were re-analyzed, providing data for over 6,000 patients, the findings suggest an average improvement in 27% of untreated patients over the term of the studies compared with a 74% success rate among those receiving hypnotherapy. This is a high success rate given the fact that many of the studies measured included the treatment of addictions and medical conditions. The outcome rates for anxiety disorders alone, traditionally hypnotherapy’s strongest application, were higher still (though a precise figure is not cited). Flammer ; Bongartz, “On the efficacy of hypnosis: a meta-analytic study”, Contemporary Hypnosis, 2003, pp179 – 197. ) In 2005 and in 2007, systematic reviews from the Cochrane Collaboration showed no proper evidence that hypnotherapy was useful in the treatment of smoking addiction or in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)  History Precursors of hypnotherapy have been seen in the sleep temples and mystery religions of ancient Graeco-Roman society, though analogies are often tenuous. Some parallels can be drawn between hypnotism and the trance-inducing rituals common to most pre-literate societies.
In the mid-18th century when Franz Anton Mesmer introduced the concepts and techniques of “animal magnetism”, Mesmerism became an influential school of esoteric therapy and important Mesmerists like James Esdaile and John Elliotson helped maintain its popularity in medicine until the end of the 19th century when it experienced a kind of resurgence in the work of Jean-Martin Charcot, the father of modern neurology. In the 1840s, Scottish surgeon James Braid, pioneered the concept of hypnotism as an opposing tradition to Mesmerism, based upon basic psychological and physiological mechanisms rather than the occult theories of animal magnetism.
Braid’s work was of limited influence in the UK but in France his ideas were developed into a more sophisticated psychological treatment. Hippolyte Bernheim began as a sceptic but became converted to the importance of hypnotism by observing the work of the celebrated country doctor Ambroise-Auguste Liebeault who rejected the theory of Mesmer and followed Abbe Faria. Emile Coue, a former clinical assistant to Liebeault, proposed a more collaborative and educational alternative to hypnosis called “conscious autosuggestion” which became very popular as a form of self-help in the 1920s.
In the mid to late 1880s American medical Surgeon-Physician, Rufus Osgood Mason supported the idea of the use of hypnosis for “Therapeutic Applications”, and wrote articles and authored a book on this as a concept. He was also a supporter of early parapsychology and psychical research. An important rivalry and debate developed between the Salpetriere school of Charcot, which focused on physiological phenomena induced by Mesmeric practices, and the Nancy school of Bernheim which placed more emphasis upon psychology and verbal suggestion, following the later writings of Braid.
However, Charcot’s ideas on hypnosis were almost entirely discredited and Bernheim’s school effectively won the debate, becoming the most significant precursor of modern psychological hypnotism. Sigmund Freud was originally a proponent of hypnotherapy. He traveled to France to study hypnosis with the two great teachers of his day, Charcot at the Salpetriere and Bernheim’s Nancy School. Freud wrote several articles on hypnotherapy and translated two of Bernheim’s books on the subject from French into German. He originally employed hypnotherapy with a small number of clients in the 1890s.
By about 1905, he had largely abandoned the procedure in favor of his newly-developed free association or “talking” technique. However, Freud’s description of the basic rule of free association still bears a striking resemblance to certain modern methods of hypnotic induction. Struggling with the great expense of time required for psychoanalysis to be successful, Freud later suggested that it might be combined with hypnotic suggestion once more in an attempt to hasten the outcome of treatment, It is very probable, too, that the application of our therapy to numbers will compel us to alloy the pure gold of analysis lentifully with the copper of direct suggestion. (S. Freud, Lines of Advance in Psychoanalytic Therapy, 1919) However, only a handful of Freud’s followers were sufficiently qualified in hypnosis to attempt the synthesis, which resulted in a gradual resurgence in popularity of “hypno-analysis” or “hypnotic regression” methods of hypnotherapy. Milton H. Erickson, M. D. is considered one of the most influential modern hypnotherapists. He has written many books, journals and articles on the subject, and his accomplishments are well-documented.
During the 1960s, Erickson was responsible for popularizing an entirely new branch of hypnotherapy, which we now call Ericksonian hypnotherapy, characterized by, amongst other things, indirect suggestion, confusion techniques, and double binds. The popularity of Erickson’s techniques has since led to the development of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), which has in turn found use in modern-day sales, advertising, and corporate training. However, NLP has been criticized by many eminent hypnotists as a distortion of Erickson’s work.
For example, Andre Weitzenhoffer, a leading Stanford researcher and former colleague of Erickson, stated, [… ] Richard Bandler and John Grinder [the founders of NLP] have on the other hand, offered a much adulterated, and at times fanciful, version of what they perceived Erickson as saying or doing guided by their own personal theorising. (Weitzenhoffer, The Practice of Hypnotism, 2000: 592-593) Training Training requirements vary greatly worldwide with the key determining factor being whether the use of hypnotherapy is State-recognized in a given area.
In the UK St Mary’s University College are the only academic institution to offer a training programme in Clinical Hypnosis see www. smuc. ac. uk/hypnosis. When it comes to becoming a hypnotherapist, training requirements and state registration requirements vary greatly around the world. Those interested in becoming a hypnotherapist should first research the laws in their state and then consider joining a professional organization that can guide them in proper training and offer a central code of ethics and disciplinary procedure to which they can commit.
This provides assurance to clients and a good ethical framework for the therapist in question. A BBC investigation found that the conditions for becoming registered aren’t always sufficient to prevent fraud: “The regulation of hypnotherapists in the UK is so lax that even a cat can become accredited, the BBC has found. George the cat was registered with three hypnotherapy organisations. ” Similar results were found in the United States.  State-licensed hypnotherapy schools do exist in the U. S. , and increase in number each year.
Several accrediting professional bodies that require minimum standards in specialized hypnotherapy education to become certified as a hypnotherapist (C. Ht. ) are also available to professional hypnotherapists and as a resource for individuals to find a qualified professional. The International Medical and Dental Hypnotherapy Association (IMDHA), International Association of Counselors and Therapists (IACT), and the National Guild of Hypnotists (NGH) are just a few. The certified hypnotherapist that has gained certification as a C. Ht. hrough a professional organization such as IMDHA, IACT, or NGH has at the minimum level, training in basic and advanced hypnosis with a minimum of 120 hour specialized hypnosis instruction. Professional organisations usually have their own set of guidelines and code of ethics to abide by, and require a number of hours of professional development every year to ensure the highest quality in treatment ranging from 16-30 CEU’s per year. Many hypnotherapists undertake this kind of professional development and training and will continue to do it until they stop practicing.
Regardless of specialized training, a hypnotherapist does not diagnose or treat any individual without the proper credentials to do so, and many times will request referrals and records to be released from a client’s physician for medical and/or certain psychiatric conditions. The definition of Hypnotherapist was provided for the U. S. Department of Labor by Dr. John Kappas of the Hypnosis Motivation Institute in 1973. A Hypnotherapist practicing in accordance with the definition uses techniques taught by Dr. Kappas and the Hypnosis Motivation Institute located in Tarzana, California.
The Hypnosis Motivation Institute is the first nationally accredited college of hypnotherapy with a rigorous curriculum of 720 hours of training including clinical internship. The title of Clinical Hypnotherapist (C. Ht. ) is earned upon completion of the program. Certification is available by the Hypnotherapists Union Local 472 to achieve the title of Certified Clinical Hypnotherapist. Professional membership boards USA * International Medical and Dental Hypnotherapy Association: Founded in 1986, a referral service of Certified Hypnotherapists dedicated to providing the community with excellently trained Certified Hypnotherapists.
These Certified Hypnotherapists will work harmoniously with allied healthcare professionals to aid individuals in dealing with specific challenges and procedures. * International Association of Counselors and Therapists: Founded in 1990, IACT is a multidisciplined association, which specializes in holistic techniques. IACT’s membership includes medical practitioners, psychologists, clinical social workers, stress consultants, NLP practitioners, clergy, licensed massage therapists, hypnotherapists, biofeedback specialists, nutritionists, educators, mental health therapists, substance abuse counselors and others in the helping, healing arts. National Guild of Hypnotists: Established in 1951, it is the oldest professional hypnotist organization in North America. * American Board of Clinical Hypnotherapy: Founded in 1996 as a membership organization committed to maintaining professional standards in the field of Clinical Hypnotherapy and to creating a forum for professional practitioners in the field. * National Board for Certified Clinical Hypnotheraphists: Organized in 1991, the NBCCH certifies mental health professionals in the field of hypnotheraphy and provides referral services for persons seeking hypnotherapy throughout U.
S. A and western Europe. * American Council of Hypnotist Examiners: Organized in 1980, ACHE certifies examiners worldwide These licensing boards are specifically for professionals in the medical and/or psychiatric field and generally do not encompass the certified hypnotherapist who explicitly specializes in hypnotherapy. US Definition of Hypnotherapist The U. S. (Department of Labor) Directory of Occupational Titles (D. O. T. 079. 157. 10) supplies the following definition: “Hypnotherapist – Induces hypnotic state in client to increase motivation or alter behavior pattern through hypnosis. Consults with client to determine the nature of problem. Prepares client to enter hypnotic states by explaining how hypnosis works and what client will experience. Tests subject to determine degrees of physical and emotional suggestibility. Induces hypnotic state in client using individualized methods and techniques of hypnosis based on nterpretation of test results and analysis of client’s problem. May train client in self-hypnosis conditioning. The Department of Health in the state of Washington regulates hypnotherapists. United Kingdom UK National Occupational Standards In 2002, the Department for Education and Skills developed National Occupational Standards for hypnotherapy linked to National Vocational Qualification based on National Qualifications Framework under The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority. And thus hypnotherapy was approved as a stand-alone therapy in UK.
NCFE a national awarding body issues level four national vocational qualification diploma in hypnotherapy. (http://website. ncfe. org. uk/) UK Confederation of Hypnotherapy Organisations (UKCHO) The REGULATION of the Hypnotherapy Profession in the UK is at present the main focus of UKCHO, a non-profit making umbrella body for hypnotherapy organisations, recognised as such by the Prince’s Foundation for Integrated Health which is the body tasked by the Government to oversee the regulation of the Complimentary and Alternative Medicines (CAM’s) in the UK.
Founded in 1998 to provide a non-political arena to discuss and implement changes to the profession of Hypnotherapy, UKCHO has grown to represent 28 of the UK’s professional hypnotherapy organisations and has long developed standards of training for hypnotherapists, along with codes of conduct and practice that all UKCHO registered hypnotherapists are governed by. As a step towards the regulation of the hypnotherapy profession UKCHO’s website now includes a National Public Register of Hypnotherapists who have been registered by UKCHO’s Member Organisations and are therefore subject to UKCHO’s professional standards.
Further steps to full regulation of the hypnotherapy profession will be taken in consultation with the Prince’s Foundation for Integrated Health. Working Group for Hypnotherapy Regulation Moves toward Voluntary Self Regulation in the UK hypnotherapy field have led to the formation of a unitary National Register which is a one-stop resource for members of the public and the National Health Service. The Register currently holds approximately 4,100 entries and is known as the National Regulatory Register for Hypnotherapy.
The Working Group for Hypnotherapy Regulation is formed of more than 20 professional organisations that have chosen to work together to progress Voluntary Self Regulation in hypnotherapy and to create agreed standards in all aspects of the profession. In the US there are currently no recognized doctorates in hypnotherapy. State licensed schools offer credentialing after the basic educational standards and examinations have been successfully passed as a C. Ht. (Certified Hypnotherapist) or a C. M. Ht. Certified Medical Hypnotherapist), depending on the school and it’s approved curriculum. Instructor status is given through professional accrediting organizations based on completed training requirements and examination. Indian Restriction The Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India, vide its letter no. R. 14015/25/96-U&H(R) (Pt. ) dated 25 November 2003, has very categorically stated that hypnotherapy is a recognized mode of therapy in India to be practiced by only appropriately trained personnel. Maharaja Sayajirao University (M. S.
University 4 star) at Vadodara is conducting one-year Post Graduate Diploma in Clinical Applied Hypnosis (P. G. D. C. A. H. ) from 2000.  Clinical hypnosis is included in the syllabus of Master of Philosophy (Clinical Psychology), a pre-doctorate course conducted by The Rehabilitation Council of India which is followed by all universities in India.  Hypnotherapy is the part of syllabus in M. Sc. / M. A. Psychology degree course,University of Rajastan, Jaipur; Banaras Hindu University; M. Sc. Yoga degree course of Bharathidassan University,B. A. /B. Sc.
Degree(Psychology), B. A. Journalism in Bangalore University; and B. Sc. Nursing course syllabus of Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik The code for commercial advertising on Doordarshan and All India Radio states that “No advertisement should contain any offer to diagnose or treat complaints or conditions by hypnosis” Australia Professional hypnotherapy and use of the occupational titles hypnotherapist or clinical hypnotherapist is not government-regulated in Australia. In 1996, as a result of a three-year research project led by Lindsay B.
Yeates, the Australian Hypnotherapists’ Association (founded in 1949), the oldest hypnotism-oriented professional organization in Australia, instituted a peer-group accreditation system for full-time Australian professional hypnotherapists, the first of its kind in the world.  The system was further revised in 1999.  The Australian Hypnotherapists Association is a member of the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia (PACFA) which represents many counselling and psychotherapy associations in Australia as well as many other professions.
However, many clinical hypnotherapists and Hypnotherapy Associations do not wish to be represented by PACFA simply because the organization is obviously not specifically devoted to representing the interests of hypnotherapy and hypnotherapists. Australian hypnotism/hypnotherapy organizations (including the Australian Hypnotherapists Association) are seeking government regulation similar to other mental health professions. However, the various tiers of Australian government have shown consistently over they last two decades that they are opposed to government legislation and in favour of self regulation by industry groups.
With this in mind in 2007 a majority of professional hypnosis groups — including professional organizations, private teaching organizations, and other hypnotism-associated professional bodies — have agreed to work toward creating a new national body to be known as Hypnotherapy Council of Australia. The Council of Clinical Hypnotherapists (CCH) will represent the Hypnosis Associations from the Southern Region of Australia, i. e. the States of Victoria, Tasmania and Western Australia. Techniques Age regression – by returning to an earlier ego-state the patient can regain qualities they once had, but have lost.  Remembering an earlier, healthier, ego-state can increase the patients’ strength and confidence.  * Revivification – remembering past experiences can contribute to therapy.  For example; the hypnotist may ask “have you ever been in trance? ” and then find it easier to revive the previous experience than attempt inducing a new state. Guided imagery – a method by which the subject is given a new relaxing and beneficial experience. * Parts therapy – a method pioneered by Charles Tebbetts to identify conflicting parts that are damaging the well being of clients, then helps those parts negotiate with each other through the therapist to bring about a resolution.  * Confusion – a method developed by Milton H. Erickson in which the subject is more likely to be receptive to indirect suggestion due to an altered state of confusion. Repetition – the more an idea is repeated the more likely it is to be accepted and acted upon by the patient.  * Direct suggestion – suggesting directly. “You feel safe and secure”. * Indirect suggestion – using “interspersal” technique and other means to cause effect. * Mental state – people are more receptive while relaxed, sleeping, or in a trance. * Hypnoanalysis – the client recalls moments from his/her past, confronting them and releasing associated emotions, similar to psychoanalysis. Post-hypnotic suggestion – a suggestion that will be carried out after the trance has ended. “When you re-awaken you will feel refreshed and happy! ” * Visualization – being told to imagine or visualize a desired outcome seems to make it more likely to actually occur. In popular culture * The progressive metal band Dream Theater released a concept album in 1999 called Metropolis Pt. 2: Scenes from a Memory. The album is about a character named Nicholas who believes to have led a past life. He starts to take hypnotherapy sessions to try to solve this intricate mystery.
There are hypnotherapist voiceovers in various songs on the album, as the doctor takes a supportive role in Nicholas’ journey into the past. * In the X-Files episode “The Field Where I Died”, there are two long hypnotherapy sessions in which Mulder and another character recount their past life as citizens of Nazi Germany and later participants in the American Civil War. Hypnotherapy is used in several other episodes too, when Mulder tries to recall the abduction of his sister, and when Scully tries to recall her own abduction. In Saimin, three apparently unrelated suicides with links to hypnotherapy occur on the same day in Tokyo. * In the anime and manga work Loveless, the main character Ritsuka undergoes hypnotherapy frequently as an addition to his psychotherapy. This serves as an attempt to force him revert to his “past self”. * NBC Universal and MoPo Productions syndicated talk show Maury, presented motivational hypnotist Boris Cherniak to help eliminate extreme and irrational phobias.  * In the My Hero Episode “The Living Dead”, Health Clinic