SOCIOLOGY 341 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM II (This a guide) VIOLENT CRIMES: -Different Stages of Criminal Career Identification Commitment Progression Identification w/ crime – similar to secondary deviance. Commitment w/ crime – social role becomes tied to the crime. Progression w/ crime – more you do it, more involved you become. -Rape Definitions of rape Statutory rape Forcible rape Similarities between forcible rape and homicide Correlates of rape and sexual assault Reasons for not reporting to law enforcement authorities -Relative Violence (familiarize yourself with each of the following:) Halloween Sadism Jack the Ripper
Netsilik infanticide Halloween Sadism – Dangers of the candy, myth, urban legend, spread by talking about it. Jack the Ripper – Famous Murder Case, random victims, which made everyone more scared. Netsilik Infanticide – Type of Eskimos, kept killing women, no now no more women, kill kids to eat (normal for them) NONVIOLENT CRIMES: -Occasional Property Offenders What are the general characteristics of these offenses? What are examples of deviance under this category? What types of societal reaction to these offenses typically occur? resented an easy opportunity. – Once caught, they are unlikely to repeat crime. Shoplifting – Employee Theft – Vandalism -Conventional Career Criminals What are the general characteristics of these offenders? What types of societal reaction to these offenses typically occur? Name at least one drawback to increasing penalties for these types of criminals What percentage of those arrested for felonies actually end up in prison? Serious Criminals – Progressed from violence and theft as Juveniles into more serious adult criminal behavior. Experience frequent interactions with police, courts, juvenile authorities, etc… – Society tries boot camps with these criminals Are in prisons, more than any other type. – Only a fraction actually go to prison. – Setback = youth stay in prisons. -What are the types of criminal political offenders? Compare and contrast these types of offenders and societys reaction to them 1 . Crimes against Government 2. Crimes by the Government -Organized Crime and Criminals What are some examples of these types of crimes?
What types of societal reaction to these offenses typically occur? Why is it difficult for law enforcement to control these types of crime? These criminals earn their living from criminal activities. – Tied in with legit business Hard to arrest and catch them because of the legal business, and people they work with aren’t going to tell on them because they need that protection. – Controlling prostitution – Running illegal gambling – Selling illegal narcotics – Racketeering -Professional Offenders What types of societal reaction to these offenses typically incur?
Develop the most extensive criminal careers and are revered as the highest social class with in the criminal community. -Typically trained in their occupation – Generally work with loosely organized groups (PicPcket) – Rarely get caught, Skill level = rare and excellent Law enforcement actually tend to praise them. -“The Devil Made Me DO It” What larger body of theoretical work does neutralization theory come from? What is neutralization theory? What are the 5 techniques of neutralization developed by Sykes and Matza? Provide at least one example for each What are 4 additional techniques of neutralization?
Provide at least one example for each – The more examples you are able to provide the better OCCUPATIONAL CRIME: -White-Collar Crime Define Who developed the term white-collar crime? Did Sutherland encounter any resistance in his attempt to publish his first book on hite-collar crime? Elaborate on the above How do the self-concepts of those who commit white-collar crime differ from the self- concepts of conventional criminals? Law violation committed in context of the offenders legitimate occupation. Sutherland -Embezzlers (Cressey 1953) What is the 3 stage sequence developed by Cressey?
Provide an example of an embezzler and label the stages discussed by Cressey 1 -A perceived unsharable financial problem. 2 – Belief that the financial problem can be secretly resolved by violating financial trust 3 – Creation of rationalizations to protect their conventional self-concept. -What s corporate crime? How does corporate crime differ from other types of white-collar crime? What are the 4 types of corporate violations? – The more examples you are able to provide the better. Crimes that are offenses involving entire firms or industries instead of crimes being committed by specific people. Different because white collar is not confined only to the actions of individuals, but also to companies and corporations. 1- Against Consumers – Firestone tires 2 – Against Owners – Martha Stewart selling off her stocks before anyone else knew. (Inside Trading) 3 – Against Employees – Hour cuts on paychecks – Against General Public – Pollution SUBSTANCE USE: -Drugs Provide a definition of “drug” Provide a definition of Psychoactive drug Provide a definition of illicit drug How does non-deviant drug use differ from deviant drug use?
Develop a definition of “addiction” using the C and Curra texts, and your class notes Drug – any substance that alters your state of being, mind, or mood. (Physically) Psychoactive drug – Produce mood change and distorts perception. Illicit drug – Unlawful to possess or to use. Addiction – Dependence on anything that causes physical withdrawal symptoms. Deviant drug use – Anything that violates the social norms within a social group. Conceptions of Drug Use Biological Psychological Sociological Individual * Hirschi * Sutherland and Akers Societal/Structural Anomie Conflict Medicalization -What do all of the above claim? Compare and contrast the conceptions of drug use (clearly distinguish between them) Biological / Psychological – In the genes, some people crave it more than others. Social learning (Sutherland and Akers) – -Drug War What are some characteristics of the war on drugs? Who do these public policies (wars) target? What similarities and differences can be seen in public policy towards white-collar crime? Judgments on deviance usually target the lower class people – along with the harder charges. -Gateway theory What has previous research found linking marijuana to other drugs?
Example – If you smoke weed, you may be more prone to using harder drugs. (NOT TRUE, NO EVIDENCE) -Annal Kingdom and Drugs Has alcohol and tobacco been found to be enticing to animals? What is a reason supported by sociologists for why humans are enticed by these substances but not animals? What are some limitations to studying drug use in animals? Humans use these substances as a social aspect in their lives, animals don’t. – Animals only given these substances in the lab, out in the wilderness, they would rather eat vs die from the drug. In the locked cage, they would rather do the drug because it is there and such. Portuguese Drug Policy What was the Portuguese drug policy discussed in the Curra reading? How is Did decriminalization raise or lower drug usage in Portugal? Provide some reasons for why this occurred What other benefits to society did the drug policy change in Portugal bring about? Gave people drugs as a treatment, decriminalized more drugs, so there was no istinction between the hard/soft drugs. Decriminalize – doesn’t make the drug legal, still prohibited. Increased Criminalization = Increased Usage – More sources to use for these treatment programs. Decriminalization in hopes to want people to go to rehab because they won’t get in legal trouble when confiding in legal authorities. -Treatment What can treatment programs offer? What is methadone maintenance? What are its benefits? What other treatment options exist? – Less crime, due to no more drug use. (No more stealing) – More productive in society – Alternative to putting someone in Jail. Methadone – Fake heroin, used to wean addicts off. Costs less than heroin, available at pharmacy. – A. A. and these programs. Scare Tactics. Education. -Scare tactics What is a moral crusade?
What is a moral panic? What is a moral enterprise? What is a moral crusader? What is a drug crusade(r)? How might these crusades, panics and crusaders impact public policy? Moral Crusade aka Moral Enterprise – Whatever these crusaders are saying, they determine what’s wrong and right. Crusader – the person who is doing the moral crusade. Moral Panic – When the moral crusade is successful. Drug Crusade – a type of crusade. Howard Becker (1963) Explain the 3 step learning process (marijuana) #1 Learn Technique #2 Learn Effects #3 Learn to Enjoy the Effects. Career Stages of Marijuana User Beginner Occasional user Regular user Beginner – first time user Occasional – Occasionally uses, random occurrence. Regular User – Actively uses, daily routine/lifestyle. -Forms of Social Control Over Marijuana Users Supply Secrecy Morality How do these forms of social control weaken as a marijuana user moves higher up the career ladder of marijuana use? Supply – Having assess to the drug. Secrecy – Its illegal, don’t want other people to know, etc… Morality – Stereotype, smoke weed = dope fine.
Higher the Social Control = More likely to continue using and what not. ALCOHOL USE: – Why do you think there an entire chapter devoted to alcohol (a drug) and not simply included in C&M’s chapter on drugs? Because 2/3 of all Americans have tried it, h still drink it. Alcohol is a drug, its normal, deviant, legal and illegal. -Types of Drinkers -Define Heavvy drinker Alcoholic drinker Problem drinker Chronic drinker What are the issues found in defining heavy drinkers and alcoholics? Social – Only drinks socially, have a limit when drinking, has the will to stop. Heavvy – Drinks a ton, heavily.
Alcoholic – Same thing as heavy drinker. Problem – affects your relationships, Job, etc… Experiences a problem as a result of drinking. Chronic – More along the lines of an “Alcholic”, a compulsion to drink, also characterized as problem drinkers. -What is the relationship between alcohol and -Is alcohol a direct cause of violent crime? -How is excessive drinking and alcoholism associated with social patterns and structures rather than individual or random effects? -6 Models of Alcoholism Psychoanalytic Model Family Interaction Model Behavioral Model Biological Model
Medical Model Combined Perspectives How do these models differ from one another? Psychoanalytic – Underlining personality disorder, the brain. Family – Looks at the family relationships, what’s driving them to drink, not Just an individual thing. Behavioral – Focuses on behaviors, sets of behaviors common with alcoholism. Biological – Family history, genetics, hereditary. Medical – Treats alcoholism as a disease. Combined – Literally combining these models. SUICIDE: of Exam #2 Suicide – Self termination, deliberate act. Euthanasia – Kill somebody else to put them out of their misery.