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The word education is derived from two Latin words i.e “educare” which means to train or to
mold and “educere” means to lead
out. These two meanings are quite different but are represented in the word

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is basically the process of receiving and giving systematic instructions
especially at a school, college and university. Gaining education is basically
an enlighting experience. The knowledge that is gained through education helps
in opening doors to a lot of opportunities in career growth. It also helps to
face most difficult challenges of life. Now-a-days, education is vital tool for
successful life. Education is the process of developing a habit of gaining
knowledge, skills, values and beliefs. Educational methods include discussions,
teaching, training and directed research. Education can be gain under the
supervision of special educators. Education can take place in formal or
informal way and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one
thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The method of teaching is
called Pedagogy.


Education system is basically the
public schooling not private schooling and more commonly to the kindergarten
through high school programs. Schools are the start of basic education system.
Every state, city and country has a proper educational system. Educational
discussions are frequently used in media and public. It may be a difficult to
determine precisely what this term is actually describing.

Types of education

There are different types of
education. One way is to divide it into formal
education, non-formal education,
and informal education.

 “It is difficult to make a
clear distinction between formal and informal learning as there is often a
crossover between the two.”

Formal education is usually in school
where a child can learn basic, academic, or trade skills. Small children take
admission in nursery or kindergarten
but often formal education starts in elementary school and continues with secondary school. Post-secondary education
is usually at a college or university.
After completing this education, we get a degree which helps in getting jobs
and make better future.


Preschools provide education from
three to seven years old children. It depends on the country when children
enter primary education. These are also known as nursery schools and kindergarten, except in the US, where kindergarten is a term used for primary education.
Kindergarten provides a child centered, preschool curriculum.


Primary education consists of the
first five to seven years of formal education. In general, primary education
consists of six to eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six,
although this varies between and sometimes within countries. The division
between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally
occurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Some education systems have
separate middle schools with the transition to the final stage of secondary
education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide
primary education are mostly referred to as primary schools or elementary
schools. Primary schools are often subdivided into infant schools and junior school.


Secondary education starts from seventh
to the tenth year of schooling. Basically, it starts from the teenage.
Secondary education comprises of formal education. In the United States,
Canada, and Australia, primary and
secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and in New Zealand Year
1–13 is used. The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge
 to prepare for higher education
or to train directly in a profession.


Higher education, also called tertiary,
third stage, or postsecondary education, it is the non-compulsory educational
level that follows the completion of a school such as a high school or
secondary school. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate
and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training.
Colleges and universities mainly provide tertiary education. Collectively,
these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions. Individuals who complete
tertiary education generally receive certificates, diplomas,
or academic degrees.

Non-formal education is basically that education which can be gain by personal
experiences and skills. It includes adult basic education, adult literacy
education or school equivalency preparation. In non-formal education someone can
learn literacy, other basic skills or job skills. Home education,
individualized instruction
distance learning
and computer-assisted instruction
is another source of getting knowledge.

Informal education
is a parent teaching to a child how to prepare a meal
or ride a bicycle. People can get an
informal education by reading books
from a library or educational websites.
Informal education is basically what you get by yourself without going to any
educational place i.e. when you are not studying in a school and do not use any
particular learning method.

of National Language and International Language

In today’s world, it is difficult for
us to understand the rights of humans. World is full of materialism. To realize
the rights of humans for providing education is biggest developmental challenge
of time. To provide education to every single human being we need to develop
equity-enhancing policies. We should ignore race, sex, language, religion,
colour political and economic issues while developing any educational policy.

Getting education in one’s mother
language is easy way to grab knowledge. Every country has its national language
known as Mother Language in which things can be learn easily. All the Constitutions
state that “everyone has the right to receive education in the official
language or languages of their choice in public educational institutions where
that education is reasonably practicable”. Medium of instruction is basically
language use in teaching methodology. It may include official language or
national language of the state or country. If the first language of a child is
different from official language, it may be used as a medium of instruction for
the schooling or a part of it.

and Quantity in Education

Quality and Quantity
do not go hand-in-hand- the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi also believes on this
saying. In a recently held programme, the Prime Minister said that:

“It is time to give
more attention on the quality of education rather than on its quantity.”

Since, from many years, government is
focusing on the construction of schools, colleges and universities rather than
improving the quality of education. Government is focusing on the buildings and
hiring new staff for activities. Emphasis should be on learning rather than on
the construction of new buildings.

In all aspects of the school and
its surrounding education community, the rights of the whole child, and all
children, to survival, protection, development and participation are at the
centre. This means that the focus is on learning which strengthens the
capacities of children to act progressively on their own behalf through the
acquisition of relevant knowledge, useful skills and appropriate attitudes and
which creates for children, and helps them create for themselves and others,
places of safety, security and healthy interaction. (Bernard, 1999)

Quality basically
depends on certain elements:

of school facilities:
Quality of school has an indirect effect on learning. Schools must have
well-equipped buildings to open air gatherings.

environment: There should be discipline in
classroom. Girls should feel safe in such environment. Teachers should act
nicely and listens to students issues and solve them wisely.

skills and Outcomes: Psychosocial and interpersonal skills
can be applied to many contexts. Life skills can be achieved by focusing on
quantity of education.

 Education System in Pakistan

In Pakistan, there
are 260,903 institutions and 41,018,384 students that are getting education
from 1,535,461 teachers. The education system includes 180,846 public
institutes and 80,057 private institutes. Hence 31% educational institutes are
running by private sector and 69% are public institutes.

in Education System

These problems are
messing up the education system and creating difficulty in promoting literacy.

 Lack of Proper Planning: Pakistan is
facing difficulty in fulfilling the international commitments due to financial
management issues. That’s why unable to achieve MDGs and EFA goals.

 Social constraints:
People are not supporting government socially and culturally to create awareness
in people about education.

Gender discrimination:
In rural areas, 45% girls are getting education which is lower than urban girls
while the difference of boys in 10% only. People in lower areas are focusing on
boys education and neglecting their daughters due to their culture, traditions,
norms and values. Some families are doing this due to trend of early age
marriages in villages.

 Cost of education is high: In private schools education is too expensive which
is affordable by few families. The rest of people are sending their children in
government schools due to lack of money but there is higher difference in
quality of education.

 Funds for Education:
89% Education expenditure comprises of expenses like staff salaries while other
11% is using in development of new educational institutes at National level.

 Technical Education: Pakistan is lacking technical and vocational
education due to training institutes. Pakistan is deprived infrastructure,
teachers and tools of training. People have talent but due to lack of
opportunities half of total population is jobless which is effecting national
development. Therefore, government needs to pay attention on technical

Gender Discrimination in Education

Gender is defined as set of behaviors,
roles and positions which can be culturally attributed to women and men. The
gender process is given at time of birth and after that we live according to
the given instructions set by our culture and traditions. Schools serve an
important agent of social being in society. There are gender rules that are set
by every institute especially for female staff. Every working place has senior
staff which set the rules for every gender. Teachers play vital role in
accepting behavior and attitude which is formally acceptable.

Gender discrimination is a very common
problem all over the world. Generally, it means creating biases against anyone
based on their gender or sex. Due to this kind of discrimination we are
creating a sense of inequality. Mostly women fall victim to it.
In the developing countries, females are discriminated against solely because
of their biological attributes. As a result, women are not provided with the
luxury of enjoying the same opportunities as males in the social, cultural,
political or economic sense.

Discrimination against Girls

In educational institutes there is discrimination against
women’s life just because they consider them unequal to men in every field.
There are multiple barriers in life of girl’s right to get education at many

Poor families have to face many issues due to poverty so
they just want to satisfy their basic needs. Due to higher illiteracy rate in
such families, they use to do gender discrimination against girls. They have
limited sources to support the education of girls, so they prefer their sons to
provide education rather than their daughters. They actually think that to run
a household girls don’t need education. In young age many poor low class
families put burden of household responsibility on their daughters which forces
them to quit their studies. Some cultures have their norms, values and
traditions which don’t allow girls to get education. In many small areas
schools, colleges are too far to go and due to Covance problem. They are not
allowed to go far away for education due to safety concerns.

Discrimination against Boys

After a lot of research it comes to
light that boys also face gender discrimination at many places especially at
educational sector. Boys have aggressive nature that’s why they are treated in
different manner at certain places. They are trouble concentrating in studies.
Teachers especially male staff behave in a nicer way with girls as compare to
boys. There are some fields where boys are not given importance like nursing,
stereotyped to be taken over by girls.

Hence, gender discussion is very common
at all places especially in educational sector and working place. Somewhere it
is highly observed due to illiteracy and somewhere due to traditions and

Co-education System:

Opinions are sharply divided on the issue of co-education
in our country. Some people consider it morally dangerous to put boys and girls
together at one place to study. There are some people who have firm faith in
co-education. They say it is a great source of betterment for boys and girls at
all levels. Co- education at primary level exists in our country but the
opposition begins at secondary level.

“Integrity has no need of rules.”

Today, female folks cannot be
confined to the restricted orbits allotted to them. Previously, they were not
allowed to act and choose according to their own wishes. They have rightly
claimed equality with men because they constitute the fifty one percent of our
total population. As a matter of fact, they have proved to the world that they
are inferior to none. Islam and the Constitution of Pakistan have stressed the
equality of both the sexes. It is unfair to cherish the co-education fosters
foul fusion and carnal pleasures. In fact when there is free mixing of boys and
girls, sex consciousness will be least aroused. If there is segregation of
girls from boys, curiosity is aroused. Students of co-educational institutions
never care to think in terms of man and women. They know only one thing that
they are learners.

           “Every man has three
characters- that which he exhibits, that which he has and that which he thinks
he has.”

Co-education is beneficial because it is cheap and economical. It is
financially difficult to open separate institutes for girls with highly
qualified staff, good libraries and well-equipped laboratories. In
co-educational institutions, there is a healthy competition between boys and girl,
which leads to eventually better results.

“Convictions are more dangerous enemies of truth than lies.”

Analysis of Issues and Problems in Education System:

Education can be improved by focusing on quality of
education not quantity.
People need to be aware of importance of education in
Gender discrimination should be banned in al over the
world. Equality must be the first priority.
Attention should be needed on shortage of teachers and
basic facilities for students.
In backward areas, buildings should be constructed near
public areas for the facility of females to get education.

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