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The Interpretation of Dreams ??? In November of 1897, Freud began writing about dreams and his self-analysis discoveries. The writings would become his famous book, The Interpretation of Dreams, published in November, 1899 ??? Freud’s first paragraph of the book stated: o “In the pages that follow I shall bring forward proof that there is a psychological technique which makes it possible to interpret dreams, and that, if that procedure is employed, every dream reveals itself as a psychical structure which has a meaning and which can be inserted at an assignable point in the mental activities of waking life. Emphasis on dreams o Dreams have access to our unconscious mind o Forbidden memories are in the unconscious mind o Dreams can represent what is anxiety-producing to us, memories that are threatening to us o Theory: dreams exist to deal with wish fulfillment; resolve it ??? One of the keys for the understanding of dreams is to separate the manifest dream content from the latent dream content.

Also dreams are often triggered by the “daily residue” o Manifest dream content is the actual depiction of the dream; the action; what is happening in the dream o Manifest content is masking the real meaning of the dream Real meaning of the dream has to be discovered with the help ofa therapist o Latent dream content is the real meaning of the dream o With Freud latent dream content has to do with sexuality o Why do we have to mask our dreams? ??? Freud says if we really dreamt what bothered us, we would never be able to sleep. Dreams would wake us up. Anxiety would bother us. To protect sleep, dream has to be disguised. Freud’s dream – The Examination dream: ??? Freud has to take a test like in college but there’s all sorts of roadblocks for him to get to where the test is going to be. ??? Manifest content of the dream – scenes Feel emotions in the dream; real as real can be when in the dream ??? Latent content of the dream 0 Freud’s interpretation: Freud that that the dream had to do with having impending sexual relationships with someone and failing at it ??? The writing of the Interpretation of Dreams exhausted Freud and again he sought emotional and literary support from Fliess during the writing process. ?? However, soon after the publication of the interper, Freud terminated his friendship with Fliess after a series of heated arguments. o Freud took the questioning of his theories very personally. Leads to deterioration of relationships Psychosexual Stages of Development Freud proposed that the child must go through stages of development in which different pleasure zones of the body become prominent. In other words, there is an investment of libido (sexual energy) in various erogenous zones of the body. ?? The four psychosexual stages, according to Freud, along with a latency period, are: o oral (0-1B montns) anal (18 months – 3 h years) o potty training phallic (3 1/2 years – 6 years) – triggers the Oedipal complex ??? Oedipal complex Beginning to have a sexual attraction to his mother Worried about the father Father already has a relationship with the mother penis Boy thinks he will be punished by the father for his sexual attraction to his mother Boys greatest fear is that the father will castrate him as the ultimate punishment How does the boy resolve the Oedipal complex?

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By identifying with the father and befriending the father By identifying with the father, the boy takes on the values of the father 0 This becomes the beginning of the superego Elektra complex 0 Girl discovers that she does not have a penis 0 She is now the victim of penis-emvy Girl becomes angry at the mother for depriving her ofa penis0 Father has the penis so the girl begins to identify with her father 0 She feels strongly attracted to the father because he has what she wants 0 She fears to lose relationship with the father so she identifies as very closely as possible with him as she can and takes on the values of the father o latency (6 years – puberty) o genital (puberty – adulthood) Fixations can occur in each of these stages leading to disturbances that carry over to the adult personality Attachment Theory The most important theory of development within psychoanalysis to replace Freud’s conception of psychosexual stages and the Oedipal complex was formulated by John Bowlby (1907-1990) and is called attachment theory. ??? Attachment theory flows out of Darwinian evolutionary biology. Many animals, including humans, produce offspring that are totally helpless at birth.

A biological need to attach to a caregiver is thus necessary for survival of the young. In turn, parents are genetically programmed to provide this care. o Not sexual o Reciprocal attachment o Can extend to the father but usually starts with the mother o This process is not automatic. o The mother enjoys the baby. The baby enjoys the mother. ??”+ secure attachment o Will not work possibly if mother had a disruptive childhood ??”+ can lead to an insecure attachment o Not learned, has an innate component to it that’s very powerful o This is a relationship that is based upon pure love ??? In 1951, Bowlby completed a study for the World Health Organization that concluded: o . epriving an infant of a continuing, one-to-one relationship with either its own mother or a permanent substitute results in the retardation of physical and intellectual development and defeats in emotional and social development ??? mpathy massive aecllne In empatny snown Dy college students decline precipitous beginning around 2000 narcissistic person What subsequent research has discovered about attachment: o The relationship between infant and mother is healthy when each enjoys the company of the other. In other words, attachment has to be mutual. ??? Take a toddler and the mother is with the child and the mother suddenly gets up and leaves. ?? Child cries if there’s a secure attachment. Reaction when mother returns is tender. Insecure attachment, no reaction when mother leaves or returns. o There appears to be a sensitive” period for the mother’s ability to attach to her child ??? Doctors give newborn immediately back to mother o Attachment provides the child with enriched sensory environments important for intellectual development ??? Rosensweig studies Reading to them is very helpful in intellectual development Kohut’s Self Psychology Another psychoanalyst, Heinz Kohut (1913-1981), wrote about what parents should do for their young children in order to foster a healthy adult personality.

According to Kohut, parents should be empathic and responsive to the needs of their children ho must make the difficult transition from complete narcissism to self-sufficiency ??? Kohut emphasizes what he called special transferences: o The mirror transference The situations where the parent will acknowledge the achievements of the child ??? Let the child know that it’s an accomplishment. Gives them self-worth ??? Ex. Child brings home a nice report card o The idealizing transference We tend to like people who are concerned about us Child will begin to have tremendous amounts of respect and admiration for the parent ??? This is the process by which we acquire the values of our parents

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