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Generally, mental health and medical situations, harmful sleeping habits, specific products, and / or some biological factors may result in insomnia. There are two cycles in the human brain that can be affected. The sleep cycle and the wave cycle. Insomnia occurs when stimulating the optimal cycle of sleep rotation. According to the National Sleep Foundaation, United States, followers are potential causes of insomnia. 

2.4.1 Medical Causes of Insomnia

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Recently many medical conditions (some mild and others are very serious) have been found to lead to insomnia. In some cases, a medical condition itself may cause insomnia , while in other cases, the symptoms of the disease may cause sleep difficulties . Examples of insomnia’s medical conditions include gastrointestinal problems such as gout, asthma, hernia, hyperthrocysy, nasal / sinus allergies, neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, and endocrine problems such as chronic pain. Drugs taken for common cold and nose allergies, hypertension, heart disease, thyroid disease, birth control, asthma and depression can cause insomnia.    In addition, insomnia is considered a sign of sleep disorders. For example, restless legs syndrome, a neurotransmitter which will have a feeling of no sense that a person needs to move his legs, which can lead to insomnia 

2.4.2 Insomnia and Depression



Mental health conditions such as depression can lead to insomnia. Psychological struggles can make it difficult for sleep, insomnia may bring in mood changes, and hormones and physiological changes can simultaneously lead to both mental health problems and insomnia.


Sleep complications may be a symptom of depression and severe depression in patients with major depressive disorder risk. Studies have shown that insomnia can cause stimulation or depression. It is important to know that symptoms of depression (low energy, interest loss or inspiration, feelings of sadness or hopelessness) and insomnia may be linked to, and on cane make the other worse. However, the good news is that the both can be treated regardless of which came first. 


2.4.3 Insomnia and Anxiety


Most adults have had some disturbances because they are anxious or nervous, but sometimes it is a method that regularly interferes with sleep. Anxiety symptoms that can lead to insomnia include: ·      Tension·       Getting into the thoughts of past events·       Much worry about future events

overwhelmed by responsibilities

·       Stimulating or stimulating public sentiment  Anxiety may be associated with onset insomnia (trouble falling asleep), or maintenance insomnia (waking up during the night and not being able to return to sleep). In either case, the quiet and inactivity of night often brings on stressful thoughts or fears that awaken a person. When this happens for several nights (or months), the victims may begin to feel anxiety, fear or panic in the expectation of sleep. This is how anxiety and insomnia can feed each other and become a cycle that should be interrupted through treatment. There are cognitive and mind-body techniques that help people with anxiety settle into sleep, and overall healthy sleep practices that can improve sleep for many people with anxiety and insomnia.

2.5 Consequences of Insomnia


     Due to its continuity for a longer period, nsomnia is associated with substantial deficiencies in the individual’s living standards. Several studies show, insomnia, have reduced the quality of low-sized organisms on virtually all dimensions of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey of the Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36), which estimates 8 domains: (1) physical functioning; (2) role limitation due to physical health problems (role physical); (3) bodily pain; (4) general health perceptions; (5) vitality; (6) social functioning; (7) role limitations due to emotional health problems (role emotional); and (8) mental health. (McHorney, Ware, & Raczek 1993; Ware, Lu, & Sherbourne 1994).


Balter, Uhlenhuth, (1992) found that research has shown that During the daytime effects of insomnia, the increased incidence of accidents shows the greatest health risk. Insomniacs are 2.5 to 4.5 times more likely than controls to have an accident. Kuppermann et al. (1995) found that individuals complaining about current sleep problem were more likely than good sleepers to have decreased job performance and to have been absent from work in the last month due to health problems.


Benca (2001) identified that population–and clinic-based studies have demonstrated a high rate of psychiatric comorbidities in patients with chronic insomnia. In fact, insomnia is associated with psychological defects rather than other medical diseases. In addition, depression and anxiety disorders are the most common symmetric cognitive disorders amaong insomniacs. It has traditionally been assumed that insomnia is secondary to the psychiatric disorder; however, given the chronicity of insomnia, it is possible that in some, if not most, cases the insomnia precedes the psychiatric disorder. In fact, it is possible that insomnia represents a significant risk for the development of a subsequent psychiatric disorder (Ohayon & Roth, 2003).

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