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Grammatical Level

-Noun Phrases

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Monstrous anger,
stuttering rifles, hasty orisons, demented choirs, wailing shells, patient

of these noun phrases express the real meaning and understanding of the fact
that a lot of sadness and difficulty surrounds the soldier’s death.


are a lot of bound morphemes used in this poem:

Bell-s            Gun-s

Rifle-s           Orison-s

Prayer-s         Choir-s

Candle-s         Eye-s

Goodbye-s     Tender-ness

Stutter-ing      Wail-ing


6. Phonological Level


What passing-bells for
these who die as cattle?

monstrous anger of the guns.

The shrill, demented choirs of
wailing shells.

shine the holy glimmers of goodbyes.


War imagery (guns, rifles, shells,

Religious imagery (prayers, bells,
choirs, candle, holy)

Imagery of death (die, mourning,
wailing, sad)


stuttering rifles’ rapid

shine the holy glimmers of goodbyes.

dusk a drawing-down
of blinds.


mockeries now for them; no prayers nor bells;

any voice of mourning save the choirs,—


7. Figurative Level-
Figures of speech


What passing-bells for these who die as

as cattle” compares the young men who die in war to cattle. This suggests that
the soldiers are insignificant and vulnerable as the cattle who are killed


Monstrous anger of the guns

Stuttering rifles’ rapid rattle

Choirs of wailing shells

of these nouns give human qualities to highlight the effect of death which is
presented as an angry and monstrous figure.


candles may be held to speed them all?

in the hands of boys, but in their eyes

pallor of girls’ brows shall be their pall;

flowers the tenderness of patient minds,

each slow dusk a drawing-down of blinds.

metaphors explain that these soldier will not get the deserved honors. There
will be nobody to mourn about their death. Instead of candles, only their tears
will say them goodbye. There will be no coffin nor flowers, only the pale
yellowish colour of the girls.


8. Graphological Level

the graphological level, this poem is written on the pattern of a sonnet. There
is no semantic, graphological or lexical deviation in the poem.



9. Coherence and

the nouns, adjectives, figures of speech and phonological sound pattern used,
create coherence and cohesion in the poem and each component delivers different
meaning to the poem which adds to its context.



poem is a lament for all the soldiers dead in the war. It helps readers to
understand the unfortunate luck of these young men to lose their lives in the
battlefield, far away from home. Through all the elements that the author used
in this poem, I could feel the pain and sadness even more. He used his own
experience to show the entire world the cruelty these soldiers had to deal
with. They will be alone, only with their enemies and their own tears.








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