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In this study, the researcher has control over measurements taken and the participants; therefore, the design of this study is a quasi-experimental quantitative. According to Babbie, quasi-experiments are non-rigorous analysis which is fairly similar to controlled investigations, yet inadequate with regards to key components, for example, pre-and post testing, or potentially control groups1.

 

Research Setting and Population

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Data was collected in Hochiminh City (HCMC) which is the fastest growing city in Vietnam, also known as metro area of Vietnam. The estimated Population in 2017 is 8.76 million with an average of 429 people per square kilometer. As of 2017, the Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange’s main index is one of Asia’s top performers2. The economic performance of HCMC is currently in the top of Asia. If GDP of HCMC increases by 1%, GDP of Vietnam will increase by 0.21%. GDP per capita (USD) increased over 20% in five years (since 2012). Consumer Price Index in October increased by 4.3% compared to the same period in 20163.

 

Vietnamese shoppers, especially urban population, have been shifting their spending patterns. Supermarkets and convenience store chains from Korea, Japan, Thailand and other countries have been penetrating Vietnamese market which leads to a high density of retailers per square foot. Convenience store numbers have jumped more than 260 percent since 20124. Look at figure 4 for number of convenience stores growth from 2010 – 2015.

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