In this paper, I
will argue that in china unitary legal system, Chinese characteristics, decentralization of authority
from the central to local governments and local governments have regional autonomy,
in the economic marketSKA1 . I am particularly
interested in exploring the current level of integration of the Chinese economySKA2 . The mainstay of the
paper is formed by an analysis of the experience of decentralization in China,
the impacts of decentralization on economic performance in China, China’s
sustained rapid economic growth over the era of its systemic reform, and
China’s macroeconomic stabilitySKA3 .
China, a unitary sovereign state
First of all, in
the preface of constitution of PRC, it says The People’s Republic of China is a
unitary multi-national state created jointly by the people of all its nationalitiesSKA4 . Socialist relations of equality,
unity and mutual assistance have been established among the nationalities and
will continue to be strengthened.
is de jure non-federalist. The latest Chinese Constitution (the 1982 Constitution)
celebrates its thirty-fifth anniversary in 2017. The governmental structure it
envisions gives an interesting insight into how the Chinese government believes
it is or ought to be structured. It defines China as “a socialist state under
the people’s democratic leadership led by the working classSKA5 “. The Constitution defines itself as
the “state’s basic law”?and
it explains that it describes the “state’s basic system and basic duties /
tasks” as well as the “basic norm of conduct” for all citizens, state organs, the armed
forces, political parties, public organizations, and all other entities. It
also imposes on them the duty to uphold the dignity of the Constitution and
ensure its implementation.
China, as everyone known, is a unitary sovereign state. we shall know,
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power, like BEIJING, in which
the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions
(sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government
chooses to delegate.
In a unitary
state, sub-national units are created or abolished and their powers may be
broadened or narrowed, by the central government. Although political power may
be delegated through devolution to local governments by statute, the central
government remains supreme; it may abrogate the acts of devolved governments or
curtail their powersSKA6 .
China, is a
unitary sovereign state and the world’s most populous country, China exercises
jurisdiction over 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4 direct-controlled
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing) and the 2 Special
Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau, also claiming sovereignty over
constitution says, in the article 3, the division of functions and powers
between the central and local state organs is guided by the principle of giving
full scope to the initiative and enthusiasm of the local authorities under
leadership of the central authorities.
In china unitary
system, the system of political organization in which most of the governing
power resides in a centralized government. China government is a form of
government in which authority is concentrated in the central government. Local
governments, such as those of regions or cities, are under the control of that
central authority. They have only those powers granted to them, and the central
government may alter or abolish local authorities at will.
government is responsible for managing national-level concerns, such as foreign
relations, national defense and national economic policy. The central ruler or
decision-making body controls all aspects of governance, because there are no
powers or functions legally reserved to other levels of authority. All areas of
government ultimately are under the authority of a single body, so states that
have this type of system often have more uniform laws and regulations.
however, Since the
introduction of economic reforms in 1978, Many reform policies were delegated
to provinces and local governments. For example, China did not liberalize
prices in one stroke. The dual price system was a common practice in China in
the 1980s, with one planned price and another market price.
fact is that, for many goods, moving from a dual price system to a single price
system was not carried out solely by the central government, but also by local
prices were largely delegated to lower-level governments. (Exceptions to this
generalization are some nationally important goods, like energy
transportation services.) Many local governments have extended their authority
to pursue reform to liberalize the prices.
in the 1980s differed, however, in that it is combined with financial
incentives, reliance on market mechanisms, increased control for lower
governments over their economies, and a new openness to international markets.
of authority is particularly associated with the
establishment of special economic zones, coastal open cities, and development
zones. In the beginning of the reform, China established four special economic
zones: Shenzhen; Zhuhai; Shantou, adjacent to Hong Kong in Guangdong Province;
and Xiamen, in Fujian Province across the Taiwan strait.
decisions in unitary states are not necessarily made by the central authority. central
governments delegate some degree of decision-making power to more regional or
local authorities in a process called “devolution,” then the local government
have greater autonomy.
has increased the incentives as well as the range of political means for local
governments to erect trade barriers, on the other hand, resulting in the
so-called regional protectionism economies phenomenon, which has
worried the central government. This form of protectionism has occurred most often
in the markets of high profit-margin manufacturing goods (such as automobiles,
tobacco products, and alcohol).
China lacks an
adequate mechanism for policing the internal market. This absence explains in
part why many local governments have focused on trade barriers and aggressive
antimarket policies within their jurisdiction. Second, political
decentralization has yet to be institutionalized to ensure its long-term
stability. A third problem is the absence of law, as many have noted.
China has no strong, explicit constitutional foundations, within relationship
of the interaction between central and local.
So, we have
discussed problems that arise from both central and local government. There
are, however, problems from a central government that is too strong, and this
is the danger of recentralization. Without further institutional constraints, a
financially independent central government would pose potential dangers to the
reform’s progress. Decentralization began with the delegation of considerable
economic authority to local governments. These governments assumed primary
authority over economic matters within their jurisdiction.
So, maybe, in the
future, Chinese style of federalism’s, balance of power between the national
and subnational governments, with the constitutional foundation, rather than a
complete centralization with a unitary government.
not sure I understand what you are saying. Are you saying that all the items in
your list have regional autonomy? How does the unitary legal system have regional
autonomy? I think you may need to restructure this sentence.
the economy into what?
thesis and overview does not seem to answer the prompt, which was to write
about the strengths of your country’s legal system. Are these strengths? If so,
you need to tell your reader so. An American reader will not know.
is this about the legal system? I think you might be beginning with too broad a
the source in a footnote.
paragraph seems to be from Wikipedia. You have to write original sentences. I
want you to write this paper from what you know. You do not need to do research