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INTRODUCTION Mining is one of the major industries in Australia which have made a large contribution to the Australian economy. Mining is one of the major factors for the growth of population in Australia. Australian continent has the world’s largest resources of iron ore, lead, bauxite, uranium, zinc, silver, mineral sands and industrial diamonds. Australian mining changed with the arrival of Europeans on the eastern sea coast in 1788. Coal was first discovered in the year 1791 by the escaped convicts. Thereafter coal was discovered in the parts of north and south Sydney. Australia has witnessed several gold rushes starting from the 1800’s, but most of the gold discovers were exhausted by 1890. Victoria became the main producer of gold, contributing more than one third of the world’s total production. The mining history of Australia is very interesting, mining industry in Australia uses the latest technologies and software solutions. The mining sector of Australia also provides a huge range of lucrative jobs.NATURE AND HUMAN RESOURCES The mining industry is one of Australia’s most important export sectors and makes a significant economic and social contribution to the Australian economy. Mining and minerals activity currently comprises 8 per cent of the Australian economy and 40 per cent of exports. The mineral and minerals processing sector has contributed over a $500 billion directly to Australia’s wealth over the past two decades, supporting more than 320,000 Australians.Australia currently has one of the largest mineral sectors by value of production in the world. The Australian mining industry has benefited from a global boom in demand for minerals in recent years, and is expanding, as a result of a high demand for raw materials from China and other parts of Asia. Australia has the world’s largest reserves of lead, nickel, uranium and zinc. It is the world’s leading producer of bauxite, alumina and diamond (by volume), the second largest producer of uranium, lead, zinc and nickel, and the third largest producer of iron ore, silver, magnesium and gold.BHP BILLITON BHP Billiton is a global mining company headquartered in Melbourne, Australia. It is the world’s largest mining company measured by revenue. BHP Billiton was created in 2001 through the merger of the Australian Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited (BHP) and the Anglo Dutch Billiton plc. It is now a dual-listed company in Australian Securities Exchange and London Stock Exchange. It has operations on aluminum, diamonds, iron-ore, petroleum, stainless steel, uranium etc.THE ROLE OF GEOGRAPHY AND THE FIRM Environmental approach to environmental management is based on the robust identification, control of material risks across exploration, development, operation, closure. BHP Billiton aim to minimize impacts, while contributing to lasting environmental benefits across the regions where we operate. It identifies and responds to material sustainability issues to successfully deliver on our company strategy. The firm is committed to few environmental obligations includinga. It doesn’t explore or extract resources within the boundaries of World heritage listed properties.b. They do not operate where there is a risk of direct impacts to ecosystems that could result in the extinction of an IUCN Red List Threatened Species in the wild.c. BHP so not dispose of mined waste rock or tailings into a river or marine environment.Human capability and social inclusion  It focuses on creating safe and inclusive environments for local communities and for the people by respecting people’s rights encouraging diversity of thoughts and creating opportunities. They support fundamental human rights consistent with article set out in the universal declaration of human rights and developing the capability and diversity of people and building an inclusive work environment is fundamental to the success. A management strategy for mental health and well being for the workforce which is focused around Culture, Capacity, Prevention and Recovery is developed. The social investment programs focused on delivering social change through education. The programs aim to create a pathway to meaningful employment and improved quality of life. The BHP Billiton partners with NGOs and institutions to enable equality of opportunity so more people can realize the power of education to improve life choices.PEST ANALYSIS OF BHP BILLITONPolitical Factors• Company’s vital drivers can be affected by the political issues, some of the vital drivers are the authorization to operate, development options and excellent assets.• BHP has invested a lot of capital in regions where there is high risk of political instability such as Mongolia, Kazakhstan and Western Africa.• It’s a resources company that is vulnerable to political risks in almost all markets.• BHP mining department got many losses under the Act of 2002.• It was forced to give 26% of its ownership rights to underprivileged South Africans. Economic Factors• BHP Billiton is vulnerable to the economic factors of a potential rise in energy costs, discovery expenses, operations, materials and labor costs.• The company relies on the current strength in worldwide commodities prices that are linked to the health of the global economy. • The company is vulnerable to unpredictable currency assessments. • Any major flaws in the global economies could cause a reduction in the demand for commodities resulting in an increased supply.Social Factors• BHP Billiton is vulnerable to socio-cultural issues in all procedures and business owners’ relationships.• Especially in the Third world regions where they have a strong sense of regressive culture.• These features demand that the company support neighboring communities financially and supply resources for infrastructure such as housing, roads and schools.• New mining and infrastructure projects often need tailor-made approvals that can increase the development costs and lower profitability.• The firm has taken measures to build on its status in Chile by concentrating on changing the worker conditions and the quality of life in the neighboring city.Technological Factors•   BHP mainly relies on the technical elements of resourceful mining, exploration and unearthing of mining and energy possessions. • The company depends greatly on the use of technology inventions for the discovery and exploration of mineral and energy resources. • The investment in technology is therefore a fundamental expense for the BHP Billiton.• The investment in the proper technological resources will affect two significant strategic drivers for the company: the project pipeline and excellent assets. • The major part of the technological infrastructure includes earth-moving machinery, trucks, cranes, concrete mixers, refineries and other machinery 

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