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and dependency are development theories that emerged after the

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second world war, they were emerged
in order to understand the reasons behind the differences

between countries, rich and poor,
and why some regions are still poor despite the fact

that the first world countries are
working on development in these targeted areas.  In general, the

dependency theory highlights the
exploitation of the periphery ( third world countries )by the

core countries, due to colonial and
post-colonial endeavors, so it describes development as an

external factor.  

While the modernization theory
describes that development is internal for the undeveloped

countries, as it describes the
transformative processes of societies in the third world countries

from underdevelopment to modern societies.


Modernization theory has been
emerged after the second world War. It has been linked to

American social scientists in the
1950s.  This theory highlights that
development is purely an

internal factor based on various
social processes, and the developing countries are still at a stage

where they have not reached modernization

Stage modernization theory by W.W. Rostow ,
one of the most important  theorists of

modernization, asserts that each
society must go through five stages of development to reach

the final goal of modernization.  Those five stages are: traditional society,
precondition for

takeoff, the takeoff process, the
drive to maturity and high mass consumption society. Similarly

other theories of modernization
believe that a certain chief variable like industrialization or

rationalization can lead a society
to become modern (Vincent Ferraro).

Modernity can be understood as the
attempt to provide a foundation for the social, one that is

grounded in reason and a project of
global emancipation. One cannot look at the bright side of

modernity without looking at its
dark side of domination. The enlightment which discovered the

liberties, also invented the disciplines
(Foucault 1979). 

Moreover, Escobar argues that development
is a discourse and what construct the contemporary

third world, silently, without
noticing it .by means of this discourse, individual, government,

and communities as seen underdeveloped
(conditions they see themselves as such) and are

treated accordingly (Arturu

Modernization is about Africa
following the developmental footsteps of Europe (largely the

former colonizer of Africa).  From this point Referring to Palestine, most
of the people who live

in ruler areas depend on traditional
agriculture for living , the traditional Palestinian  society was

first invaded by the British Mandate,
which colonized Palestine and started the Jewish

Immigration to Palestine through
this colonization process.  The British
Mandate is a western

country started the process in modernizing
Palestine through new agricultural methods, and

during the British Mandate
Palestinian Women started raising their voice seeking liberty and

education. Yet as discussed earlier,
modernization is double faced, especially when Britain

dominated the country for thirty
years a lot of traditions and values were changed, after that the

 Israeli occupation, one must not forget that
Israel is technologically a developed country which

makes Palestine a country that is
still Passing and applying modernization in all ways of life,

culturally, socially, mentally, and

According to modernity, policies
intended to raise the standard of living of the poor often consist

of disseminating knowledge and
information about more efficient techniques of production.  For

instance, the agriculture
modernization process involves encouraging farmers to try new crops,

new production methods and new
marketing skills (Ellis and Biggs, 2001).  This is the case of

Palestine nowadays. 

In criticizing the theory, the
western civilization is technically and morally superior to traditional

societies. Implies that traditional
values in the developing world have little in common compared

 to those of the West. Yet, many developed
countries have huge inequalities and the greater

the level of inequality the greater
the degree of other problems like, High crime rates, suicide

rates, poor health problems such as
cancer and drug abuse.

Another limitation for this theory
that it failed to see the different interests between the

developed and developing countries.

Dependency theory :

Development is most clearly anchored
in the western economy , with its ensemble of 
systems of

production , power and signification
(Polyani 1957,Foucault 1973)

According to Andre Gunder Frank
(1967), in his analysis of the post colonial state, has argued

that classical development theories
such as modernity are misleading in that they fail to articulate

the true relationship between the
developed world and the poor regions of the world.

From this point came the dependency

The debates among the liberal
reformers (Prebisch), the Marxists (Andre Gunder Frank), and the

world systems theorists
(Wallerstein) was vigorous and intellectually quite challenging. There is

no one unified  theory for dependency , but they all agree on
major characteristics , Nonetheless,

there are some core propositions
which seem to underlie the analyses of most dependency

theorists (Vincent Feraro).

first, dependency characterizes the
international system as comprised of two sets of states

variously described as dominant/dependent,
center/periphery or metropolitan/satellite

Second,all definitions have in
common the assumption that external forces are of singular

importance to the economic
activities within the dependent states. Third,dependency is a very

deep-seated historical process,
rooted in the internationalization of capitalism. Dependency is an

ongoing process.

Dependancy is a historical condition
which shapes a certain structure of the world economy

such that it favors some countries
to the detriment of others and limits the development

possibilities of the subordinate
economics,a situation in which the economy of a certain group

of countries is conditioned by the
development and expansion of another economy, to which

their own is subjected(Dos Santos).

The  global system of capitalism in which core
nations such as the USA and UK exploit what

the peripheral nations or LDCs. The
periphery is kept in a state of dependency and under-

development because the developed
world requires cheap raw materials and labor. this

relationship of exploitation and
dependency occurred historically through slavery and

colonialism, and continues today
through Western dominance of the international trading system,

the practices of multinational
companies and the LDC’s reliance on Western aid(Andre Gunder Frank )

As lawrence Harrison quotes ,Underdevelopment
is a state of mind ,like latin America they

 needed to develop like America ,making them
poor underdeveloped countries without market 

sell their products to,and this is
the major proposition of dependency theory .

Social anthropologists consider the
dependency theory to be both pessimistic and structural. At

macro level, the main premise of the
structural dependency theory is that it would be impossible

to understand the processes and
problems of Africa without considering the wider socio-

historical context of Western
European expansion (industrial and mercantile capitalism,) and the

colonization of these places by the
Western economies (Frank, 1969)

After this background referring to
Palestine , Palestine have never been an 

country , it have always been
colonized and occupied , it have never been responsible of its own

resources and production , the
Israeli occupation settled the land that Palestinians used in

agliculture , they dominated the
water resources, the Trade , Isolated Gaza from the west bank ,

which also make it difficult for the
domestic market to grow .

On the other hand Palestine is so
much dependent on the international NGOs funds , which in

most cases they have a lot of
defects beside its benefits , one of the most important ones are not

having sustainable development
,loading the poor and the country in debt for using loans for the

first world countries through
international organizations and world bank ,which leaves Palestine

economically dependent on the rich
countries .

however , the dependency theory was
criticized that it  focuses too much on
economic factors

and does not take into consideration
the country’s political, social, cultural and environmental

factors that might be contributing
to underdevelopment, another issue is their  suggestion that a

developing country can disconnect
from capitalism and go its own way is impossible in our

globalized economy.











1(. Rostow,W.W); the Stages of Economic Growth: A
Non-Communist Manifesto”.

2.( Vincent Ferraro); “Dependency Theory: An Introduction,”
in The Development Economics Reader, ed. Giorgio Secondi (London: Routledge,
2008), pp. 58-64

3.(Faucault,Michael ); the
use of pleasure .new York:Viintage books .


4.(Arturo Escobar; Imagining a
post development era?Critical thought,development and social movements ,
1992,pp 20-56


5. (Theotonio Dos Santos;”The
Structure of Dependence,” in K.T. Fann and Donald C. Hodges, eds.,
Readings in U.S. Imperialism. Boston: Porter Sargent, 1971, p. 226)


6. (Andre Gunder Frank); ‘The
Development oF Underdevelopment’,1966.




















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