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It has
been found that diel CO2 cycles reduce the effect of elevated CO2
levels and ocean acidification on Acanthochromis
polyacanthus (spiny
chromis damselfish) and Amphiprion
percula (orange clownfish) behaviour.


Over the next 100 years ocean surface pH is projected to fall due to increased
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere dissolving in the water, as ocean pH is
directly affected by atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.1  Ocean acidification and increased CO2
concentration can drastically effect marine environments, causing consequences
such as the slowing of coral growth and calcification,2
the calcium carbonate skeleton of coral can dissolve in lower pH water and there
can be detrimental effects on the behaviour of fish, for example decreases in

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The studies into the effects of increased ocean acidification and CO2
concentration rarely take into account the diel CO2 levels found in
coral reef and shore environments. Due to the large concentration of plant life
present in and around these ecosystems, the concentration of carbon dioxide in
the water fluctuates based on the intensity of sunlight throughout the day. The
2016 study by Jarrod et al focuses on
the effect diel CO2 levels has and proves that the diel cycle should
be taken into account when trying to ascertain the future implications of
increased atmospheric CO2 and ocean acidification. The
research done shows that the diel CO2 have a significant effect
reducing the negative impacts of the elevated concentrations.   

The first experiment was looking at the effect of diel verses stable
elevated CO2 treatment using CO2 levels predicted for
2100 (480 and 100?atm)4
and the diel CO2 levels are based on levels found in some tidal


1 Bopp, L., Resplandy, L., Orr,
J., Doney, S., Dunne, J., Gehlen, M., Halloran, P., Heinze, C., Ilyina, T.,
Séférian, R., Tjiputra, J. and Vichi, M; (2013 pp.6225-6245); Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in
the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models; Biogeosciences,

2 Joan A. Kleypas, Chris Langdon (2006, p. 73); Coral Reefs and Changing Seawater Carbonate
Chemistry; online Available at: accessed: 2/01/2018

3 Jutfelt, F., Bresolin de Souza,
K., Vuylsteke, A. and Sturve, J; (2013); Behavioural Disturbances in a
Temperate Fish Exposed to Sustained High-CO2 Levels; online Available at:
accessed: 4/01/2018

4 Kroeker, K., Kordas, R., Crim,
R., Hendriks, I., Ramajo, L., Singh, G., Duarte, C. and Gattuso, J; (2013, p. 1884–1896); Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms:
quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming; Global Change
Biology 19(6)

5 Shaw, E., McNeil, B. and
Tilbrook, B. (2012); Impacts of ocean
acidification in naturally variable coral reef flat ecosystems; Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans,

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