Computer Maintenance and Training Manual Table of content Chapter 1 Safety Environmental concerns Power Protection Dust, static, and heat issues Downloading unauthorized software Chapter 2 Maintenance and Cleaning Tower Monitor Keyboard Mouse Chapter 3 Internal hardware installation Motherboard Power Supply Processor Memory Hard Drives Chapter 4 Basic Principles for supporting I/O Devices and Multimedia and Mass Storage Devices Installing a Video Card Installing a DVD Drive Chapter 1 Safety * Environmental Concerns There are many methods that can be used to dispose of obsolete computer equipment.
These include employee giveaways, donations to charity, and in some cases, an execution of the old mainframe. Most all old computers are considered toxic waste and must be disposed of properly. When it comes to household computer monitors they are usually not considered hazardous waste and are not included under federal regulations, however if you wish to disposed of one, you may want to make sure that the hard drive has been cleaned. Now for the heart of this issue. Since old computers are considered toxic waste, the main way that most businesses handle obsolete computers is to let a recycling company handle the dirty work.
These companies are regulated by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, but you have to use caution to make sure that the company that you choose to use is regulated. So it pays to do your research, and it is well worth the effort. Properly recycling and disposing of old computer equipment is no longer just a matter of what is convenient, it is also an environmental and legal issue. Power Protection and Safety When working around electronic equipment our responsibility is to ensure the personal safety of ourselves and those around us. We should never work on a device until we have powered it down and unplugged it from the wall.
If we are working on a portable computer, we have to make sure the battery is out of the system. Current Power that comes from the wall is AC, it’s Alternating Current, about 115 volts at 60 cycles in USA or 220 volts at 50 cycles in EU. Alternating current coming out of a wall can be enough to stop our heart. Power coming out of a wall is retained, even after the device is unplugged from the wall. It’s retained in the device’s power supply, in components called capacitors. Capacitors in a high voltage power supply can retain enough current, enough power, to kill us, even hours after the device is unplugged from the wall.
This is why a power supply in a computer is an FRU, a Field Replaceable Unit. It is not a serviceable part of the computer. We should avoid servicing anything to do with high voltage, including computer power supplies. High Voltage Another source of high voltage with which we’re all familiar is a CRT monitor, a tube, so we should not work inside a CRT monitor. If we must work within a CRT, discharge the high voltage first. The important thing to remember is not to wear ESD bracelet around high voltage.
If we are grounded, we become the path of least resistance for current, and If the current is high voltage, we are the path through which the high voltage current Dust, Static, and Heat Issues Heat Heat is the enemy all computer technicians must face. I consider it one of the silent killers in the computer world. I have seen far too many computers fall victim to this common issue, because not enough care was taken to save the computer. Now, I will admit that heat is not normally one of the first things people think of when they get a new computer or laptop, but it’s this thought that could save you a lot of money.
Processors, memory, hard drives, PCI devices—all of this can be destroyed by an overheating computer. There are a few ways to help protect yourself though: * The first is to make sure you don’t have the computer in some kind of non-vented cabinet. If so, you may want to consider moving it. The heat has nowhere to go except back into the computer to be recycled as more hot air. * Laptop users make sure you do not surround your laptop with piles of paper and other items; this is basically just insulating the laptop and not allowing it to vent properly. If you do not plan to use the computer for a while, try either turning it off, or putting it into a power save mode. This will allow the computer to take a break and cool off for a while. * Try to avoid having a computer placed right next to a floor heater of any kind as this will just increase the amount of external heat being taken in by the computer. With these few simple steps you are on your way to having a cooler safer computer, but there are other issues to look out for, leading me into my next topic. Dust!!! Now don’t get me wrong, I’m not saying anyone has a dirty house, but it’s a fact that dust is everywhere.
There is no real way to avoid it. I don’t know what it is, but I swear computers live to suck in dirt and dust and just let it sit there. I tend to clean my computer twice a year because I can barely see through the vent fans anymore. Try some of these tips to help out: * Use a vacuum with a bristle head to lightly clean the vent fans and the computer case. This also works for laptops. The bristles are a good way to remove loads of dirt and dust and to make sure your computer can vent properly. * Canned Air is a must for any computer technician; I know we have loads of it at work.
You can buy it at any store, really, from Staples to Stop & Shop. Take the computer outside and give it a few good blasts to loosen any dust that is caked on. Just remember to spray away from you, I always forget that part. * Pet owners beware! Your pet’s fur may be shedding and finding a new home inside your computer. Pet fur is superb insulation, and can badly damage your machine. I don’t know how many fur coats I could have made with pet fur I’ve pulled from personal computers. I recommend cleaning every 3 to 4 months or so if you have an animal that sheds. Static Electricity
Static electricity is a major problem for most electronics. Unfortunately for us humans, we can carry a powerful static charge with us wherever we go. Not many people may know this, but the motherboards on most computers do not sit directly on the side of the case. They are raised up just a little bit to help in case a static charge runs through the case. Have you ever noticed that new computer parts come in those metallic looking static-free bags? I have two suggestions for this one: * If you often work with the insides of computers, you may want to invest in a static charge stopper.
This is a small band that connects to your wrist, and has a wire that clips onto the computer case. In theory, it grounds you to the computer case to stop any wild static discharges. * My other suggestion is to make sure you either touch the side of the computer case, or a close friend to make sure you are not carrying a static charge. Not only will this save you a headache later, you get to give someone a little static shock! Downloading unauthorized software Unauthorized Software Installation Installing unauthorized software programs (such as games to play during break time, signature files for email, weather programs, etc. on your computer at work may seem harmless or even beneficial (as with applications that make your job duties easier). However, software from unauthorized sources can create many problems. For example: ? Freeware and low-cost software downloaded from the Internet or distributed on floppy disks or CDs can contain viruses that will infect your system and spread to other computers on the network. ?Unauthorized software may be poorly written, intended for use with a different operating system, or have conflicts with currently installed software that can cause it to crash your computer or send unwanted messages on the network. Unauthorized software might be pirated (copied illegally), which could subject the University to penalties in case of a software audit. ?Unauthorized software may contain sypware that will capture information you type and send it to marketers or criminals. ?Unauthorized software, once installed is seldom kept current. The software may not contain known security flaws when installed but hackers may discover and exploit flaws. The software company corrects these security flaws and releases an updated version. Most users never update the software once it is installed and is vulnerable to the security flaws.
As you can see, downloading unauthorized software can be anything but harmless. Please use caution and think twice before downloading. Chapter 2 Maintenance and Cleaning How to clean your computer CPU in ten simple steps STEP 1: Shut down the CPU and remove the power cord from the electrical outlet. STEP 2: Remove the power cord and cables from the rear of your computer. STEP 3: Place your computer tower on a stable platform above the floor. A floor’s static charge may damage the computer, even a wood or vinyl floor. It is best to do the cleaning outside the building, or in a maintenance shop due to the air-borne dust created.
STEP 4: Clean the outside of the computer case by lightly dampening a cloth with a mild soap solution and wiping off the dust. Use a computer vacuum, if available to remove dust from the fans, air intake and exhaust areas at the rear of the computer. STEP 5: Open the computer case, using a screwdriver if required. If it is unclear how to open it, carefully inspect the rear of the case for screws that may need to be removed. Or, as is the case of some recent Dell computers there are large buttons on the top and bottom of the case that must be depressed before the side of the case swings open (see right).
Typically, the left or right side of the case will come off, it will swing open like a hinge, or the main case will lift off its base in a single piece. Consult your owners manual. STEP 6: Open the CD-ROM drive tray and carefully blow air in, and around the tray to remove dust. Press a paper clip into the tiny hole beneath the CD tray to open it. STEP 7: Put on an antistatic wrist strap and attach it to an electrical ground, like a metal plumbing fixture or the metal frame of equipment you are servicing (see photo). This will ensure you do not damage sensitive electronics due to static discharge from your body.
Alternatively, use an anti-static mat. STEP 8: Clean the computer inside as well as around fan air intakes and exhaust (see photo) by holding canned air or compressed air at a distance of at least two inches away and blowing away the dust. Clean fan blades, motherboard and other areas. If using canned air, use short puffs. Attack clumps of dirt from different angles to loosen. Take care not to touch anything inside of the case. Do not turn the can of air upside down as this may cause liquid to come out. This is what the inside of a clean Dell computer looks like: STEP 9: Replace the computer case cover.
STEP 10: Clean cables and power cords while they are disconnected. Lightly dampen a cloth with mild soap solution and gently pull the cables and cords through the cloth. Too tight a grip may damage the cables. Dry the cables and power cords with a dry cloth. STEP 11: For a dusty or harsh computer environment using ShopShield™ computer dust covers are recommended. The innovative ShopShield is a breathable membrane that totally encases your computer or monitor to filter out dust and dirt, but at the same time allow clean, cool air to pass through.
It’s an economical way to allow you to keep your computer protected in dusty conditions even while it is running. How To Clean A Monitor Welcome to your guide to cleaning your LCD or CRT computer monitor. Computer screens are prone to dust and fingerprints. This will be your basic guide on how to clean your monitor. The method for cleaning a monitor is very straightforward, and can be completed in a few minutes. Before cleaning your monitor disconnect the monitor from the power supply and the computer. In case of a laptop/notebook screen, ensure the system is turned off. If possible remove the battery. Now lets get started. If you are going to clean the monitor casing, do it before you clean the screen. Spray the anti-static cloth with a suitable cleaner(don’t spray the fluid directly onto the monitor/laptop) and wipe the monitor’s casing (be careful not to touch the screen with the cloth or cleaning solution) * To clean the screen, gently wipe the dry microfibre cloth across the surface of the screen in straight lines to remove any dust. * If there are stubborn marks, put some of the LCD cleaning fluid (or water) onto the microfibre cloth and gently clean the area(never spray fluid directly onto the LCD screen, always spray/apply onto the cloth).
Ensure that the screen/monitor is completely dry before use. There you have it, a nice clean monitor. Repeat every 2 weeks or as needed. How To Clean Your Keyboard To keep your keyboard in top condition a moderate cleaning could be done weekly, and the more thorough clean could be done every two months, depending on use. This will be a basic guide on how to go about cleaning your keyboard, it is pretty simple and can be done in a short period of time. Let’s get started. * First shutdown your PC, and remove the main plugs, unplug the keyboard and hold it upside down to release any debris from in between the keys.
Pressing the keys is a good way to release it. * If you have a can of compressed air, then use it to blow any debris from around and under the keys, if not then use the hose of a vacuum cleaner to remove it. * Now take one cotton bud and put a couple of drops of the cleaning fluid on it. Use the cotton bud to clean the sides of the keys. * After cleaning the sides of the keys, take your lint free cloth and dampen it with your cleaning fluid (don’t put the liquid directly on the keyboard), give the surface of the keyboard a good wipe over, using the cloth to trace the contours of the keys. When you have finished, give the keyboard a wipe over with the dry cloth or duster, you should now have a nice clean keyboard. How To Clean Your Mouse When an optical mouse needs cleaning, the mouse pointer’s movement will be sporadic, it may also jump across the screen for no reason. To clean a mouse is fairly straightforward, it only takes about ten minutes so lets get started. * The first step is to unplug your mouse. Optical mice usually connect to the computer via the USB port. If you have a USB mouse, then you can remove it without switching off the computer.
If however, your mouse connects using different connectors, then you should switch your computer off first. * Once unplugged, look at the bottom of the mouse to locate the area where the LED and the lens is located. * Dampen the end of a cotton bud with a few drops of suitable cleaning fluid, never put the fluid directly onto the mouse. * Take the damp cotton bud and gently wipe the area to remove any dust or residue. , be careful not to put any pressure on the LED or lens. * Make sure that no excess fluid gets squeezed out of the cotton bud into the mouse.
You may find turning the cotton bud between your fingers can be effective. * Once done, use a dry cotton bud to gently wipe over the area to ensure it is dry. Now you should have a nice clean mouse. Chapter 3 Internal Hardware Installation and Maintenance How to install a Power Supply Replacing a power supply is something that you may do when you want to replace the generic power supply that the computer store sold you. Those power supplies are probably low end, and are not enough for high end applications. So one of the first things that you may want to do is to know the power rating that you want or need.
This process is just a basic description of how to go about replacing your power supply. * The first step that you should take would be to disconnect all your computers external cables, especially the power cable, and place them somewhere within reach. * Place the rear part of the computer facing you. Pay attention to the screws that are located there. * Now you should normally see six screws, two located on the right hand side that fasten the case side panel, and four that fasten the power supply unit to the case. (You will probably need a Phillips screwdriver for this). Remove the two screws located on the right hand side that fasten the case side panel and slide this panel off. This will open up and should put you in the exact location of the power supply. * Before removing the power supply, you will need to disconnect all power connectors that are installed on different devices inside the computer. * Now simply remove your old power supply and replace with the new one. How to Install your Processor Install a Processor (CPU) Locate the processor socket on your motherboard. I am installing an Intel PIII 866 processor on a socket 370 as shown on the following image.
The installation would be slightly different if you have a different processor i. e. Slot1 PIII CPU, P4 Socket 478, Core 2 Duo Socket 775, AMD Slot A / Socket A, Socket AM2 CPU etc. Raise the brown lever on the socket and slowly put the processor in place. You have to make sure the pin 1 of your CPU goes into the pin 1 of your CPU socket otherwise the CPU would not get into the socket, so don’t try to force it in. It will go in gently if you fit it correctly. Now close the brown lever which will securely hold the CPU in place. If you bought a retail boxed CPU it would include a heatsink + fan.
If you bought an OEM CPU make sure you got a fan that is correct for the speed of your CPU, otherwise your CPU will overheat and behave abnormally or could be damaged. Take off the plastic cover from the bottom of the CPU fan that covers the heat transfer pad. Now place the CPU fan on top the CPU and push down the metal clips on the fan so that it clips onto the CPU socket. CPU fan has a power connector which needs to be connected to CPU fan power socket on your motherboard as shown on the image above. Finally, you have to specify what frequency (speed) your CPU is running at.
This can be done using jumper settings, or on some modern motherboard it can be done in the BIOS, or your motherboard may have automatic detection for your CPU frequency. Please refer to your motherboard manual for more details. The motherboard I am using (Abit BX133) has a dip-stick jumper setting and it can be setup in the BIOS. I have left the jumper setting to default as I will use the BIOS to specify the CPU frequency. The CPU runs at the bus speed of 133Mhz therefore I will use the settings 133 * 6. 5(multiplier) under the BIOS, which will the run the CPU at 866Mhz How to Install a Motherboard
Before you install a motherboard, as a general guideline, make sure you have all your pieces ahead of time and don’t force things into places if they do not want to go. This process can be fairly simply if you follow these steps and don’t try to do anything fancy. So lets get started. * First open your computer case. Some computers have a button or buttons that you press to open the box. Some have screws on the rear of the case which must be removed. The new motherboard is going to be mounted onto the motherboard tray. Some computers have removable trays, but some have embedded trays. Pop out the pre- installed connector plate on the rear of the case and replace it with the one that came with the new motherboard. * Once the plate is out you need to determine where you are going to mount the new board. There are many locations to attach screws on a motherboard tray. The mounting locations coincide with screw holes on the motherboard. * First mount the standoff screws on the tray. These screws separate the motherboard from the metal casing. Sometimes these require special tools, so check ahead of time to make sure you have the right stuff. * Fasten the motherboard by starting in the center and then the corners. Attach the control wires for the power button, reset button, and LED’s, on the front of your computer. Again check your manual to see where these are located on your motherboard. * Attach the power connector from the power supply. This is the largerst plug in the bunch. * Now you can install the rest of your devices like hard drives and CD burners using their appropriate cables. Also set any jumpers that might be required for your motherboard. * Close up your computer and plug in all your cables, and there you have it, a brand new fully installed motherboard. How to install Memory
Installing memory is really a breeze so don’t worry to much over this. If you are unsure about the memory that you have, check with your manufacturers specs before proceeding. The memory used for our system is DDR ram, and is now used by a lot of systems. They come in all different speeds, and you will need to check the FSB on your CPU as to what memory you can buy. You can buy PC3200 memory for a CPu running at a slower FSB, the memory will just run slower, but the bonus is if you ever upgrade your CPU, the memory can FSB increase. Now lets get started. * Unplug your computer Remove the system case cover. * Locate the DIMM slots( refer to the motherboard manual on information such as slot arrangement and dual channel. ) * Open the locking lugs at either end of the memory slot. Line up the module with the slot. This can be a pain so use a flashlight to se the module’s slot. They only go in one way so take your time and do not force it. * Push firmly on both sides of the module till it seats. The locking lugs should snap closed, if not just simply do this manually so they hold the ram securely in place. * Close the system case and boot up. You should see a memory count on POST (power on self test). Now there you have it. You should be good to go, but if you run into problems, make sure the modules are seated properly. How to install Hard Drives At some point you may need to replace your hard drive for whatever reason. Depending on your computer, this is just a basic process of how to go about replacing that hard drive. Before you start removing anything, one of the first things that you need to do is back up all of the data that could still be accessed on the floppy, and then remove the old hard drive. Let’s get started. Normally there will be four screws to remove. Hard drives in PC’s are usually mounted in fixed cages, removable drive cages, or on rails, the standard method in older PC’s would be fixed cages, therefore two screws will be located on the front side and the other two will be located on the back side within the case. * Once the screws are all removed the case will slide off backwards and the hard drive will be sitting in the bottom of the cage. This may not always be the case. Some open at the bottom, so when you remove the last screw the drive will drop if you are not holding on to t. * If the cables are long enough, you may leave them attached to the hard drive as you slide it out. If not, clear a path. Do not try pulling them through a huge mess. * Once the hard drive is out, you can remove the broad ribbon cable which carries the data, and the 4×1 power cable. The ribbon cable may be secured in place with glue or with silicon to prevent it from working out of the drive. It is often keyed properly to the drive, but if not get the red wire on the pin 1location. * The power connector is often tough to remove because of the tight fit.
Work it back and forth gently, making sure you are not flexing the circuit board as you do so. * Once you have done this, you will see the jumpers for the Master/Slave between the two cables. Make sure that the jumper settings for the Master/Slave are set the same way they were on the old drive. * The final step would be to simply slide the drive back into place and secure it. Chapter 4 Multimedia and Mass Storage Devices How to install a Video Card In general, when installing a video card, first read the documentation for the card, and set any jumper switches or DIP switches on it.
Like most cards today, the video card that we will be installing is Plug and Play compatible, and has no jumpers. The video card that we will be installing is a universal AGP card that is keyed for a 3. 3v or 1. 5v slots, and has a registration tab that allows it to also fit into an AGP pro slot. An AGP slot might require a retention mechanism around it that helps hold the card securely in the slot. Some motherboards require that you install this retention mechanism on the slot before you install the card. Check your motherboard documentation for specific instructions.
Now that you have read all of your documentations for your motherboard, we can now begin the process of installing your new video card. * Remove the face plate for the slot from the computer case, and slide back the retention mechanism on the slot. * Insert the card in the slot and slide the retention mechanism back into position. The retention mechanism slides over the registration tab at the end of the AGP slot to secure the card in the slot. * Use a single screw to secure the card to the computer case. Remember, some motherboards require that you install a retention mechanism around the AGP slot before nstalling the video card. Replace the computer case cover, plug in the video cable, and turn on the system. When Windows starts up, it will launch the found new hardware wizard. Follow the onscreen instructions to install the drivers. Windows will most likely install its own generic video drivers. * To take full advantages of the features of your video card rather than using the generic drivers provided by windows, you need to use the video card drivers provided by the manufacturer. To do this, right click anywhere on the desktop, and select properties on the shortcut menu.
The display properties windows open. * Select the settings tab and click advanced. On the next window click the adapter tab, and the adapter’s properties windows open. * Insert the CD that came with the video card and click Update Drivers. Follow the onscreen directions to install the new drivers. After the drivers are installed use the display properties windows to check the resolution and refresh rate for the monitor. Now your card is installed and you can enjoy the benefits of it. How to install a DVD Driver Many of you have computer system that you wish to upgrade.
You will need to replace the drive to continue to have the capabilities of your computer as before. Others may to change their CD drive to a DVD drive to enhance their computers capabilities. Whatever your reason here is a basic process to replace your old DVD or CD driver. * Unplug your computer. Take the power cord out of the back of the computer or pull the plug out of the wall. Simply shutting off the computer is not enough; a touch in the wrong spot can cause serious injury. * Touch something metal. That will get rid of any static electricity that you might have. Open the case and locate the drive that you wish to replace. Make sure you are looking at the correct drive. Some computers have more than one DVD or CD drive. * There may be up to three connectors to remove, however there will always be at least two connectors. Connector 1 (the closest to you) will be the power connector. Grip it firm and pull. The second connector is the IDE cable, the third connector, which is not always there is the audio cable. This is on the far side of the DVD drive. Push the clip down and simply pull it out. * Now that the wires are out, look for the screws that are holding the drive in lace. There can be as many as four on each side. Once you remove the screws, tap the back of the drive and push it forward. Grab hold of it, and pull it out. * Now this is important, JUMPER SETTINGS. On the back of the drive that you are going to replace, you will see a set of pins with a little tiny clip. Marked on the DVD/CD it will show a small diagram with 3 options- Slave, Master, and Cable Select (CBL). The new drive must have the same jumper settings as the old drive in order for it to work. If you get this part wrong the computer will not notice your new drive and it will not work.
Simply look at the pins on the old drive and make sure that the little clip (jumper) is in the same spot as your new drive. If it isn’t, just pull the jumper out and put it in the correct spot. * Slide the drive through the top and make it flush with the rest of the case. Put 1-2 screws in to hold it steady. * Put the cables back in. Starting with the IDE cable first is usually recommended, because it is in the middle. You can put the power and audio plugs in from the left and right side. * Plug the computer back in, leave the case off. Power the computer on.
Make sure the computer recognizes the new drive before putting the case back on. Let the computer boot to the desktop and see if it finds the new hardware. Test the new drive; see if it can read a CD/DVD. * Look at your computer. Make sure the drive is flush with the computer. You want it to look nice as well as work properly. * Unplug the computer again, and screw in the rest of the screws to hold the drive in place. Put the case back on the computer and screw it back into place. (NOTE): There are some cases that require the sides to be on before it will power on.
So there you have it, a somewhat simple process to replacing your DVD/CD drive. Chapter Five Basic Principles for Supporting I/O Devices Installing and Supporting I/O Devices • Basic Principles to Support I/O Devices • I/O devices may be internal or external • Fundamental principles and concepts: – Every I/O device controlled by software – Best guide for installation and support: manufacturer – Some devices need application software – Problems are sometimes solved by updating drivers or firmware – Learning about I/O devices is a moving target – Device Manager manages devices and device drivers Some devices follow Energy Star standards • Types and Features of I/O Devices • Topics covered: – Motherboard and display devices I/O ports • Including monitor, projector, video card, other expansion cards • I/O Ports on the Motherboard • Ports directly off motherboard – Parallel, USB, FireWire • Ports provided by expansion card • USB Ports Becoming popular ports for slower I/O devices • USB Ports • Easier to configure • Faster than serial or parallel ports • Use higher-quality cabling • Power drawn from USB port • Ports available on case front or rear – Can daisy chain 127 USB devices USB cable wiring • Four wires: two for power, two for communication – USB cable length • Original USB: up to 3 meters • Hi-Speed USB: up to 5 meters • Hub is used for greater distances • FireWire (IEEE 1394) ports – Also called FireWire (Apple) or i. Link (Sony), Lynx (Texas inst. ) – Similar to USB • Use serial data transmission, are hot-pluggable, and supports up to 63 FireWire devices daisy chained – FireWire versions • 1394a, 1394b, 1394c, 1394d – Use isochronous data transfer • Data transferred continuously without breaks such as digital audio, video …. Serial Ports – Transmit data in single bits – Originally intended for I/O devices (e. g. , mouse or modem) – Sometimes called DB9 and DB25 – Conform to RS-232c interface standard • Sometimes called an RS-232 port • Also called COM1 or COM2 port – Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter (UART) or UART 16550 • Motherboard controller logic • Parallel ports – Simultaneously transmit 8 bits of data – Primarily designed for printers – Being replaced by USB – Parallel port types • Standard parallel port (SPP) • Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP) • Extended Capabilities Port (ECP)