Explain the role of each of the key components of a balanced diet. A balanced diet is a diet with all of the key nutrition that is essential to health healthy growth and activity [internet] www. worldnetweb. princeton. edu/perl/web[viewed on 07th October 2010] A good health is well being of the body and its functionalities. A healthy balanced diet can be when eating variety of foods to get nutrients needed by the body. Balanced diet contains micro and macro nutrients in the amount that is needed by our bodies.
The daily recommended allowance of calories for a man is 2500, women is 2000and children 1800. This is based on how much energy is needed by the body to function normally. The daily recommended allowance is a nutritional need that varies or differs in lifestyle and activities. Our body needs a certain amount from each food group. This can be easily illustrated by a food pyramid. The basic metabolic rate is the energy used by the body while resting as its still continues to control normal body function www. changingshape. com/resources/references/fitnessglossary. sp [Accessed on 5 October 2010] Micro nutrients are essential nutrients to a balanced diet; thought there are other elements that are needed besides micronutrients . This are nutrients needed in small amounts ;i. e. minerals and vitamins. Vitamins in small amounts are required then categorised for their biological and chemical activities. A balanced diet needs vitamins because they are essential. Although it’s needed in small quantity, it plays a part to keep our body going. The vitamins are categorised into two; fat soluble and water soluble.
The fat soluble can be found in fatty foods example fat from animals, vegetables, and dairy foods, liver and oily fish. Even though they are essential the body doesn’t require them daily. So whatever that is eaten and it’s not needed is stored for later used in the liver and fatty tissues. Fat soluble can be harmful if eaten too much. The fat soluble are vitamins A, D, E and K. Water soluble vitamins unlike fat soluble vitamins aren’t stored in the body although they are essential and needed in a balanced diet. This is because the vitamins are wasted when we pass urine.
They are not considered harmful if eaten in too much quantity. These vitamins are found in vegetables, fruits and grains. They are vitaminB6, vitaminB12, vitamin, biotin, folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, Riboflavin and thiamine Mineral are nutrients essentially needed in the form we find them in food before digestion in a balanced diet so that the body can function well. They can be found in various foods like meat, cereals, fish, milk and dairy foods, vegetables, fruits mainly dried ones. The main reason for minerals in our diet is because they aid our body to build strong bones and teeth.
They help to turn food we eat into energy and the control of body fluids inside and outside the cells. The essential minerals are calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulphur [internet]http://diet. ygoy. com/2009/06/19/micronutrients-and-macronutrients. [June 19, 2009][Accessed 5 October 2010] Anaemia is caused by lack of iron in the body. Iron is one of the micronutrients which make red blood cells. Having less red blood cells in your body could lead to lack of oxygen. The end resulting to tiredness, fatigue and lack of concentration [Internet] [http://hcd2. upa. co. uk/fact_sheets/html/anaemia_iron. html] [Accessed on 3october2010] The macronutrients are nutrients that give fair amount of energy. They are needed in large amounts and they provide calories as well as playing part in other body functions. These are carbohydrates providing 4 calories per gram, protein providing 4 calories per gram and fats providing 9 calories per gram. Carbohydrates are macronutrients that are needed in large amounts . carbohydrates makes up to 45-55% of calories needed in a healthy balanced diet.
When carbohydrate rich foods are digested in the body energy is released. When in our body carbohydrates regulate the circulation of sugar in the blood round the body to function. It also helps in the absorption of calcium from the digested food. The energy is normally used as a muscle protector and the rest stored when not needed in the liver. A carbohydrate is also needed by the central nervous system i. e. the kidney, brain, and the muscle for them to function properly. When not enough carbohydrates is digested or eaten there is a breakdown of body protein.
The foods that are mainly rich in carbohydrates are starchy food grains, potatoes, fruits, milk and yogurt. They can be found in these but in lesser amount vegetables, beans, nuts, seeds and cottage cheese. [Internet] http://www. eatwell. gov. uk/healthydiet/nutritionessentials/starchfoods/[accessed on 05 october2010] Proteins Proteins in our diet are essential to our bodies for the promoting of lean tissue growth. The function of immunity in our body needs foods that are full of protein. Essential hormones and enzymes depend on proteins for their making.
Growth in children and adults, tissue repair and immune functions are all depended on proteins in their work. Proteins that can be found in animals are consisting of essential amino acids that are needed; and Non essential amino acids are found in plants. When your body starts to develop weak muscle it’s a sign of less protein in the body. Less protein in your diet could lead to development of spots on the nails and brittle hair. Fats The functions of fat in our body are to maintain normal growth and development. The fat in our diet provide taste, stability and consistency to the food.
It also helps in maintaining cell membranes, provides insulation and protection of the major organs and also aid in the absorption of vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E, and K. The three main types of fat are saturated, unsaturated and trans-fat. Saturated fats are found in foods like meat, butter, lard and cream. Unsaturated fats are those that are found in foods like olive oil, avocados, nuts and canola oil. Trans-fat is found in margarine, backed foods, snacks, and fried foods. More of the fats and where they can be found and the deficiency can be found in the table. [Internet]www. prohealth. om/ library/ [Accessed on 03 October 2010] Water Water is essential to a healthy diet and can be found from beverages; – liquids we drink up to 60%, 30% is also formed from foods consumed especially fruits and vegetables and the rest of the 10% metabolic water is also produced by metabolism [internet] www. wiki. answers. com [accessed on 3october2010] As water is essential to our well being; when our body doesn’t get sufficient it could cause dehydration which could lead to chronic constipation and kidney stones. Lack of water in the body will also reduce concentration to about 50%.
Nutrition is important because the food we digest, our body absorbs the simple but essential minerals, vitamins, fats, proteins, carbohydrates, fats and water into the bloodstream. After absorption, the nutrients are broken down and transported to all the cells in the body which enables the body to protect itself from viruses, bacteria and toxins Reference www. changingshape. com/resources/references/fitnessglossary. asp http://diet. ygoy. com/2009/06/19/micronutrients-and-macronutrients/ http://www. eatwell. gov. uk/healthydiet/nutritionessentials/starchfoods/ www. prohealth. com/ library/ www. wiki. answers. com ttp://hcd2. bupa. co. uk/fact_sheets/html/anaemia_iron. html] Dietary requirements: micronutrients- Minerals |Micronutrients |Properties and RDA |Where and what is it found in |What does it do /why is it important |What happens if you don’t get | | | | | |enough | |Calcium |500mg – 1000mg |Found in milk, cheese and other dairy foods. Makes blood to clots well |Rickets in young children | | | |Green leafy vegetables such as broccoli , cabbage and |Helps to regulate muscle contraction such as heart |Poor muscle tone | | | |okra (not spinach) |beat |Osteoporosis in adult. | | |Soya, beans, tofu, nuts, fish, bread and anything with |Aids to build strong bones and teeth |Development of allergic reactions. | | | |fortified flour. | | | |Iron |14 – 18mg |Good sources are liver, meat, beans, nuts, and dried |Helps in the formation of red blood cells to carry |You get muscle weakness | | | |fruit.
Whole grain fortified breakfast , Cereals, soy |oxygen round the body |Serious cases anaemia | | | |beans ,flour and dark green leafy vegetables like | |Get light headaches / tiredness | | | |watercress and curly kales | |May cause impaired immune system | |Magnesium |300mg |Rich sources are green leafy vegetables like spinach and|Helps to get energy from food that is eaten |The body may break down and loss | | | |nuts |Aids the release of energy from food |of energy | | | |Other good sources are bread, fish, meat and dairy | |Possibility of death in severe | | | |products. | |cases | |Phosphorus |800mg |Found in meat , dairy foods , rice , oats , bread, fish |Helps to strengthen bones and teeth |Increase of exposure to infection | | |and poultry |Aids the release of energy from food |Difficulty in walking and severe | | | | | |cases means death | |Potassium |2-3 gram a day |Good sources are fruits like bananas , vegetables, |It balances the control of fluids in the body |May cause diarrhoea | | | |pulses , nuts, seeds, milk , fish ,shellfish , beef , |May lower blood pressure |Less of it causes eating disorder | | | |chicken , turkey and bread | | | |sodium |none |Naturally found in all foods but high levels are added |-Balances the fluids in the body |-May lead to immobility | | | |to processed foods example bacon and ready meals |-Help in the digestion of foods |-Not to eat, drink, breath or even | | | | |-Manufacture of adrenaline and amino acids. live | |sulphur |none |Naturally found in many foods and can also be used as a |-It aids in many different body processes |-Only if the diet contained too | | | |form of food addictives in some processed foods |-Helps in making of tissues like cartilages |little protein | Dietary requirements: micronutrients-vitamins |micronutrient |Properties and |Where or what is it found in? |What does it do-why is it important? |What happens if you don’t get enough? | | |RDA? | | | |Vitamin A |750µg3 |Cheese, eggs , oily fish , milk , yoghurt fortified margarine |-Helps visibility in dim light |-This could lead to blindness | | | | |-Help to strengthen immunity from infection |Reduction in the health and integrity of skin and | | | | |-It maintains skin health and in the nose, the mucus|tissues | | | | |lining | | |Vitamin D |2. 5µg |Oily fish, liver, eggs and also in fortified foods. Margarine, |-Helps to regulate calcium and phosphate in the body|-Pain and muscle weakness | | | |breakfast, cereals and powdered milk.
Other source is sun light |which are needed for the formation and maintaining |-Increase of bone loss and the chances of fracture | | | | |of healthy bones and teeth | | |Vitamin E |lOmg |Rich sources are plants oils example soya, corn, and olive oil. |-Acts as an antioxidant which helps to protect cell |-High risks for heart diseases and cancer | | | |Others are nuts, seeds wheat germ example cereals and such |membranes. |-Damage to the nervous system | | | |products. | | | Dietary requirements: macronutrients-vitamins Macronutrient |Properties and how many |Where or what is it found in? |What does it do-why is it important? |What happens if you don’t get enough? | | |Calories does it contain | | | | |Vitamin K | |Green leafy vegetables such as broccoli |-It helps blood to clot |-Excessive blood loss | | | |and spinach. Vegetable oils, cereals. -It helps to build strong bones |-Increase in chances of death | | | |Small amounts can be found in meat, pork | | | | | |and dairy foods like cheese. | | | |Vitamin B6 |Zmg (US); none current (UK); |Found in variety foods such as pork, |-Allows the body to store the energy found in the |-Affect the immune system making it hard to fight | | |2mg (EU). chicken, turkey, cod, bread, whole grain |absorption of carbohydrates and protein |diseases | | |[pic][pic] |cereals, eggs, soya beans, peanuts, milk,|-Helps in the formation of haemoglobin |-It may cause skin problems or anaemia | | | |potatoes and vegetable | | | |Vitamin B12 |1µg |Found in meat and algae example seaweed. -Aids in the process of folic acid |-Blood and the nervous system affected and damaged | | | |Main sources are salmon, cod, milk, |-Helps to release energy from food |-Get anaemic as a result and the red blood cells may | | | |cheese, eggs, yeast and some fortified |-Helps to form red blood cells and keep the nervous |have problems to carry oxygen | | | |cereals |system healthy | |Vitamin c |3Omg |This is found in a variety of fruits, |-keeps cells healthy by protecting them. |-May cause bleeding from the mucus membrane or under | | | |vegetables like peppers, broccoli, |-helps the body absorb irons from the food we eat |the skin causing spots. | | | |Brussels sprouts, sweet potatoes, oranges| | | | | |and kiwi fruit. | | |Vitamin b7/vitamin h | |Found in foods including meat such as |-helps turn food we eat to energy from our bodies. |-Dry skin | |biotin | |kidney, eggs and vegetables e. g. dried |-helps in making blood cells |-may help elevate or lift cholesterol | | | |mixed fruit | | | |Folic acid | |Found in small amounts in many foods, |-Reduces the risk of neutral tude defects e. g. pine bifida|-may suffer from anaemia | | | |broccoli, Brussels sprouts, asparagus |in un-born children | | | | |peas, chickpeas and brown rice, bread and|-forms red blood cells while working well with vitamin B12 | | | | |some fruits egg oranges and bananas | | | |Vitamin B3/niacin |1. 3-1. mg (US); none current |Good sources are beef, pork, chicken, |-aids in production of energy from the foods we eat. |-loss of appetite | | |(UK); 8mg (EU). |wheat floor, maize meal, egg and milk. |-keeps the nervous and digestive systems healthy. |-sores on the skin | | | | |-promotes skin healthy. |-week and dizziness. | |Vitamin b5/pantothenic|4. 7mg (US) (new figures give |This is found in all meat and vegetable |-helps in the release of energy from the foods we eat. -inability of the body to cope | |acid |10mg); none current (UK); 6mg|foods rich in chicken, beef, potatoes, | |-fatigue and muscle crumps | | |(EU). |eggs, porridge, tomatoes, kidney, | | | | | |broccoli, and whole grains. | | | |Vitamin b2/riboflavin |1. mg (US); none current |Found in small quantities in many foods |-helps in the absorption of irons from food eaten |-may suffer from visual disturbances | | |(UK); 6mg (EU). |rich in milk eggs and fortified cereals, |-helps in the formation of steroids and red blood cells |-digestion problems | | | |rice and mushrooms |- Helps restore the skin, eyes, the nervous system and |-headaches and tiredness. | | | | |mucus membrane healthy. | | |Vitamin b1/thiamine |. 2. 1. 5mg (US); 1. mg (UK); |Most type of food like pork, vegetables, |-helps in the breaking down and release of energy in works |-wastage of tissues. | | |1. 4mg (EU). |milk, cheese, peas, fresh and dried |with other b vitamin |-swelling of body tissues. | | | |fruit, eggs, whole grain breads and some |-helps to keep nervous and mucus tissues healthy. | | | | |fortified breakfast cereals. | | | Dietary requirements: Macronutrients Macronutrients |Properties and how many |Where and what is it found in |What does it do /why is it important |What happens if you don’t get enough? | | |calories does it contains | | | | |Carbohydrates |1 grams gives 4 calories |Found on plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, grains, potatoes,|-It regulates circulation of sugar to the body. |-Breakdown of body protein | | | |and yought. -Helps the body to absorb calcium |-Loss of energy and feeling fatigue | | | |Small amounts can also be found in beans, nuts, seeds, milk and |-Works as muscle protector. |-Abnormal fat metabolism | | | |cottage cheese |-Enables the body to function |Increase in sodium excretion | |Proteins |1gram gives 4 calories |For a complete protein it’s found in meat and animal based |-Helps in growth and development. |-Develop weak muscles | | | |product. e. g beef, lamb, pork, poultry, eggs, fish and milk.
They |-Helps to promote lean tissue growth |-You could develop spots on nail and brittle | | | |can also be found in plants such as Fruits, vegetables, and |-Protects the function of immunity |hair. | | | |grains. The incomplete are in beans , rice, corn |-Aids in digestion process | | | | | |-Helps to produce essential hormones and enzymes. | |Fats |One gram gives 9 calories |Can be found in oils, dairy(margarine, cheese, butter) meat, nuts |-Stores energy in the body |-Slow in growth of finger nails and dryness of | | | |and snacks |-It insulates and protects the organs |the skin | | | | |-Provides fat soluble vitamins |-Excessive ear wax | | | | |-Helps in taste |-Painful joints | | | | | |-Menstrual crumps | |Water |250ml / day |Beverage – liquid we drink up to 60% |-Regulates the bodies temperature |-Reduction of energy | | |1ml/kcal(0. 4ml/kj) of |From foods consumed especially Fruits and vegetables which counts|-Aids in cell process |-Dehydration- chronic constipation and kidney | | |energy |for 30% |-Helps in the production of energy |stone | | | |Metabolism water produced by cellular metabolism counting for 10% |-Helps in the process of excretion | | |Fibre | |Variety of whole grain, vegetables, fruits, peas, lentils and |-Supports bowel regulatory |-Constipation | | | |beans |-Maintain normal cholesterol levels and blood |-High blood sugar and cholesterol | | | | |sugars |-Haemorrhoids relating to straining from | | | | |-Helps the unwanted pound off |constipation | Food pyramid [pic] http://web. mit. edu/athletics/sportsmedicine/wcrfoodpyr. html ———————– 1