Index Introduction The purpose of this report is analyzing the leadership styles in the Hospitality industry, his development and how the leadership style that is chosen could affect to the employees and the whole organization, and which one is more effective.
At first discusses what leadership is from the perspective of different authors as well as the different types of leadership that exist and have existed in the leadership ‘s history, from the leadership traits that was the earlier studies about leadership until the newest theory “Servant leadership” which there is very limited information and see he leader as a servant for the followers. Then focus on transformational leadership and servant leadership styles in the hospitality industry explaining their characteristics.
Also there is an explanation about the similarities between transformational leadership and servant leadership like that both are oriented- people leadership and differences like the focus of the leader in both leadership. It should be added that the existing information of transformational leadership is somewhat complex and perhaps subjective because most of the studies are based on the perspective that employees have of their superiors. In relation with the servant leadership its literature is scarce as it is a very recent discovery.
Therefore we developed a case study in which we give reasons why servant leadership is the leadership model most appropriate for a hotel. Finally, we establish a conclusion at which we arrived after reading and analyzing existing information on leadership. Leadership definitions, early theories and recent theories 1. Leadership introduction Only in English language there are more of 300 definition of leadership. Rallph M. Stogdill in 1974 said, “there are almost as many different definitions of leadership as here are persons who have attempted to define the concept”.
In addition the definition of leadership has changed considerably in the past the definition of the leader was known as “great man” concept and now the studies focus on “transformational leadership. ” 2. Leadership definitions 1. Leadership may be considered as the process (act) of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts toward goal setting and goal achievement. (Stogdill, 1950: 3) 2. Leadership is the behavior of an individual when he is directing the activities ofa group toward a shared goal. Hemphill & Coons, 1957: 7) 3. Leadership is the accomplishment of a goal through the direction of human assistants. A leader is one who successfully marshals his human collaborators to achieve particular ends. (Prentice, 1961: 143) 4. Leadership is interpersonal influence, exercised in a situation, and directed, through the communication process, toward the attainment of a specified goal or goals. (Tannenbaum, Weschler & Massarik, 1961: 24) 5. Leadership is the initiation and maintenance of structure in expectation and interaction. Stogdill, 1974: 411) 6. Leadership is a process of influence between a leader and those who are followers. Hollander, 1978: 1) 7. Leadership is the influential increment over and above mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organization. (Katz & Kahn, 1978: 528) 8. Leadership is an influence process that enables managers to get their people to do willingly what must be done, do well what ought to be done. (Cribbin, 1981) 9. Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward goal achievement. Rauch & Behling, 1984: 46) 10. Leadership is an attempt at influencing the activities of followers through the communication process and toward the attainment of some goal or goals. Donelly, Ivancevich & Gibson, 1985: 362) 11. Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group in efforts toward goal achievement in a given situation. (Hersey & Blanchard, 1988: 86) 12. Leaders are those who consistently make effective contributions to social order, and who are expected and perceived to do so. (Hosking, 1988: 1 53) 13.
Leadership is a development of a clear and complete system of expectations in order to identify evoke and use the strengths of all resources in the organization the most important of which is people. (Batten, 1989: 35) 14. Leadership is an interaction between two or ore members of a group that often involves a structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and expectations of members… Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of others in the group. Any member of the group can exhibit some amount of leadership… Bass, 1990: 19-20) 15. Leadership is the art of influencing others to their maximum performance to accomplish any task, objective or project. (Cohen, 1990: 9) 16. Leadership is a process of giving purpose (meaningful direction) to collective effort, and causing willing effort to be expended to achieve purpose. Oacobs & Jaques, 1990: 281) 17. Leaders are individuals who establish direction for a working group of individuals who gain commitment from this group of members to this direction and who then motivate these members to achieve the direction’s outcomes. (Conger, 1992: 18) 18.
Leadership requires using power to influence the thoughts and actions of other people. (Zalenik, 1992) 19. Leadership is that process in which one person sets the purpose or direction for one or more other persons and gets them to move along together with him or her and with each other in that direction with competence and full commitment. Oaques & Clement, 1994: 4) 20. Leadership is the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for the shared aspirations. (Kouzes & Posner, 1995: 30) As you can see the literature of leadership is extensive and much of it is confusing and contradictory.
As Bennis said in his book “Becoming a leader”: “leadership is like beauty: it’s hard to define, but you know it when you see it” and that “The ingredients of leadership cannot be taught. They must be learned. ” Having said that, we can conclude that a leader is one who influences a group to achieve a common goal, but we have to remember that to be a leader we need follower. In addition a leader need, among other, these characteristics: listening skills, be emphatic, be visionary, innovative, self-control.
In the history have existed and there are many styles of leadership: 3. EARLY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP 3. 1 . Theories of the traits of the leader Early studies of leadership were concerned to know what a leader distinguished feature of the rest of the population. It was to isolate one or more social, physical, intellectual or personality characteristics in people who are generally recognized as leaders that people who don’t have these characteristics. 3. 2. Theories of leadership behavior These theories propose that leaders differ from non-leaders by specific behaviours.
If research on the traits had won their conclusions, then we have a criterion for “select” the right person to assume formal positions in groups and in organizations where leadership is required. Between studies that examine behavioural styles we will discuss the two best known: studies of the Michigan’s university and Ohio’s university. Ohio university studies These studies attempted to identify independent dimensions leader behavior. These dimensions are: The structure of initiation; refers to the extent that the leader tends o define and structure his role and those of subordinates for achieving the goals.
The consideration; is the degree to which a person usually working relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates’ ideas and appreciation for their feelings. Michigan university studies Employee-oriented, the leaders of this group give greater importance to interpersonal relationships. Production-oriented, leaders of this group are focused on the tasks. Black and mouton managerial grid Black and Mouton developed a grid that is representing the styles of leadership: oncern for people and concern for production (dimensions discovered by the universities listed above).
As you can see the array represents different styles of leadership among those that stand 5 which represent different degrees of interest by employees or production. 4. Contingent or situational theory of leadership These theories assume that the managers are able to choose among different leadership styles depending on the situation in which they are located. This means that managers are flexible, is to say, they can change their leadership styles as situations they encounter. The studies of this theory that are most relevant are:
Fiedler model, Hersey-Blanchard model, leader-member exchange theory, path-goal model of House. 4. 1 Fiedler’s contingency leadership theory Fiedler proposed that the working group’s performances depends on the style of interaction of the leader with subordinates and the degree of influence that the situation gives the leader. Fiedler designed a questionnaire which called the “Least Preferred Co-worker” (LPC). With this questionnaire pretended to know if the leader was task-oriented or relationship-oriented according to the score that the latter had given least preferred co-worker.
Hersey & Blanchard’s situational leadership theory The theory of Hersey and Blanchard is one of the most used which focuses on the followers. For Hersey and Blanchard a good leadership style is obtained by choosing the appropriate leadership style, which depends on the “maturity’ of the followers. It attaches great importance to the followers because they are the ones who accept or reject the leader. According to the definition Hersey and Blanchard, the word maturity designates capacity and desire of people to assume responsibility for directing their own behavior.
It has two components: Job maturity; includes the knowledge and skills, and those who possess it have the knowledge, capacity and xperience to do their Job without direction from others. Psychological maturity; refers to the motivation to do something, those who are motivated to a high degree not need to be motivated. Hersey and Blanchard propose four leadership styles: Ordering( tasks orientation – relationship-orientation) the leader defines roles and tells people when, how and what to do. (Managerial behavior). Persuade ( tasks orientation relationship orientation) the leader has a behavior management and support at a time.
Participate. ( tasks orientation – relationship orientation) the leader and the follower re involved in decision making being the main function of the leader to facilitate and communicate. Delegate( tasks orientation – relationship orientation) the leader provides little direction and support. The last component of the theory of Hersey and Blanchard’s define four stages of maturity: MI . The individual can neither wants to take responsibility to do something. It is not competent and has no self-confidence. M2. The individual cannot but wants to do the tasks required of the position.
Feels motivated, but lacks the appropriate skills. M3. The individual can, but does not want to do as the leader desires. M4. The individual can and want to do as the leader is asks. 4. 2 Theory of leader-member exchange This theory proposes that leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of subordinates. These people are what are called as “internal group”, the leader trusts them, give them more attention and receive special privileges. On the other hand is the “out-group” the leader dedicates them less time, get less rewards and leader-subordinate relationship is strictly formal.
The theory predicts that subordinates with internal status will yield more and have less turnover and greater satisfaction than the external group. . 3 House’s Path-goal theory This theory proposes that the duty of the leader is to help their followers to achieve their goals and provide direction and adequate support to make sure that their goals are compatible with the objectives of the company. This theory identifies four leadership’s behaviors: The managerial leader; establishes tasks, provides instructions and makes clear to his followers what is expected of them.
The collaborative leader; is friendly and cares about the needs of subordinates. The participative leader; consultation with subordinates and uses their suggestions before making a decision. The achievement-oriented leader; proposed challenging goals and hopes their subordinates perform at their best. 5. Recent approaches on leadership 5. 1 Attribution Theory of Leadership This theory argues that leadership is Just an attribution that people make about other individuals. It has been discovered that people characterize leaders with traits such as intelligence, outgoing people, understanding and so on.
Leader is seen as a hero who always gets what he wants. 5. 2 Theory of charismatic leadership Charismatic leaders have an idealized objective they want to achieve and a strong personal commitment to their goal. They are also perceived as unconventional people with self confidence. One study found that followers of charismatic leaders get more support from their leaders; they work longer hours, are more productive and are more satisfied than those subordinates with no-charismatic leaders. 5. Transformational versus Transactional Leadership Transactional leader motivates its followers towards goals, establishing roles and tasks. Following Robbins (2004) his characteristics are: Contingent reward. Agrees exchange effort-rewards, promises rewards for good performance and recognizes the achievements. Management by exception (active). erforms corrective actions. Management by exception (passive). only intervenes if the objectives are not met Laissez-faire. Avoids making decisions and resignation to the responsibilities. However transformational leaders go beyond of their own interests, all for the good of the company.
Thanks to their personal characteristics, transformational leaders make their subordinates give more importance and value to their tasks, thus creating a strong effect on their followers. Following Robbins (2004) his characteristics are: Charisma. Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, get respect and trust. Inspiration. Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, and expresses important purposes simple. Intellectual stimulation. Promotes intelligence, rationality and problem solving. Individualized consideration. Provides personal attention, treat each employee individually, instructs, advises.
The Burn’s ideas were developed by Bass and Avolio resulting the formal concept of transformational leadership. In 1990 Bass specified that transformational leadership “occurs when leaders broaden and elevate the interests of their employees, when they generate awareness and acceptance of the purposes and mission of the group, nd when they stir their employees to look beyond their own self-interest for the good of the group”. The main idea is that, transformational leadership is a promise with the organizational objectives and after that an empowering followers to have success in those objectives (Yukl, 1998).
Transformational leaders change the follower’s personal values establishing a climate where they can share their views and can form relationships, which help to support the vision of the company and share its objectives (Bass, 1985). Avolio in 1991 established four behaviors that constitute transformational leadership: Idealized influence. It is the main component of transformational leadership; leaders become role models and are admired, respected and imitated by followers (Avolio and Bass, 2002; Bass, 1998; Bass and Avolio, 1994). Inspirational motivation.
The Transformational leaders must inspire and motivate others providing challenges and meaning to the work of their followers (Avolio and Bass, 2002, p. 2). If it is done correctly the Teamwork awake and the enthusiasm and optimism of the followers increase (Bass, 1998) Intellectual stimulation. Transformational leaders try that their followers make a effort “to be innovative and reative by questioning assumptions, reframing problems, and approaching old situations in new ways” (Avolio and Bass, 2002, p. 2). Individualized consideration.
The transformational leader provides personal attention to followers to know their needs and help them succeed and grow (Avolio and Bass, 2002). In summary, the transformational leader determines the objectives in a clear and attractive, act with confidence and optimism, gives confidence to his followers, emphasizes values his followers, leads by example and achieves that employees are able to achieve the objectives (Yukl, 2002). Right now we will proceed to concentrate on the latter type of leadership but focused on the hospitality industry. 5. Servant Leadership The Servant leadership is a new kind of leadership, and is a long-term results, it means that you need time to see There is a long list of studies on transformational leadership, however, still not too many studies on servant leadership, so far, most of these studies have addressed the comparison of this style with the transformational leadership or identifications of servant leadership’s characteristics (Farling , 1999; Giampetro-Meyer, 1998; Laub, 1999; Russell, 2000; Tice, 1996). The Servant leadership is a new kind of leadership, and is a long-term results, it means that you need time to see.
The phrase “servant leadership” was coined by Robert K. Greenleaf in “The Servant as Leader”, an essay that he first published in 1970. In that essay, Greenleaf said: “The servant-leader is servant first… It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. That person is sharply different from one who is leader first, perhaps because of the need to assuage an unusual power drive or to acquire material possessions… The leader- first and the servant-first are two extreme types.
Between them there are shadings and blends that are part of the infinite variety of human nature”. (Robert K. Greenleaf, “the Servant as a Leader”). According whit Robert Greenleaf, the servant leadership has the following characteristics: Listening. Servant leaders must adopt a deep commitment to listen carefully to others. They must identify and clarify the will of the group. Must be able to hear what is said and even what is not said. Even listening to “inner voice” trying to understand what the body, spirit and mind want to communicate.
It is said must listen to verbal and non-verbal signals and interpret what the other are saying. Empathy. Servant leaders must understand and take the place of others. Humans have the need to be accepted and that their work will be recognized. You should assume the good intentions of coworkers and not reject them as people even if the leader is forced to reject their behavior or performance. Healing. Learning to heal is a powerful force for transformation and integration. One of the great strengths of servant-leadership is the potential for healing one’s self and others.
In “The Servant as Leader”, Greenleaf writes, “There is something subtle communicated to one who is being served and led if, implicit in the compact between the servant-leader and led is the understanding that the search for wholeness is something that they have. ” Awareness. General awareness, and especially self-awareness, strengthens the servant-leader. Persuasion. Servant leaders must rely on persuasion rather than the position they occupy in the hierarchy of the organization. They have to try to convince others as well as being effective at building consensus within groups.
Conceptualization. The onceptualization refers to the servant leader must think beyond day-to-day reality. Foresight. This feature indicates that service leaders must understand and learn from the mistakes of the past, the realities of the present and the possible consequences of a decision in the future. The leader must be an intuitive leader. Stewardship. Spears explained that feature as: “A commitment to serving the needs of others. It also emphasizes the use of openness and persuasion, rather than control” (Spears) Commitment to the Growth of People.
Individuals have a value that goes beyond contributing as labor. The servant leader should be committed to ersonal growth, professional and spiritual development of each individual in the organization. Building Community. The servant leader should identify possible ways create a community among people under his command. Farling (1999) presented a concept of servant leadership based on the variables of vision, influence, credibility, trust, and service. And he concluded that servant leaders find the source of their values in a spiritual base.
Russell (2000, 2001) tried to understand the attributes and values of servant leaders, and developed a hypothesis in which specified that the servant leaders differ on personal values of the rest kind f leaders, and these values are linked to the attributes of leadership. The results indicated the need for more empirical studies to prove his theory. It is a kind of leadership on which even though not many studies have been made, is gaining more importance and are expected to be deeper research on this type of leadership.
The servant leader’s primary objective is to serve and meet the needs of others, which optimally should be the prime motivation for leadership (Russell and Stone, 2002). Servant leaders develop people, helping them to strive and flourish (McMinn, 2001). Servant leaders provide vision, gain credibility and trust from followers, and influence others (Farling et al. , 1999) The servant leadership focuses on others rather than oneself, is the leadership style less selfish and must be understood as a servant leader.
An individual’s integrity, character, and personal values are key in determining his or her effectiveness as a servant leader (Giampetro-Meyer et al. 1998; Griffith 2007; Liden et al. 2008). Servant leaders engage in continuous self- reflection, analizing their personal belief systems so that their actions will be consistent with professed values (Ciulla 1995; May et al. 003; Simons 2002; Washington, Sutton, and Field 2006). The term self-reflection is essential in a leader as their values affect their decision making. (Russell 2001).
Also the values not only influence the decision making but also to conflict resolution and any other activity that affects the organization and its members. (Kouzes and Posner 1995; Malphurs 1996). 6. Transformational leadership in the hospitality industry If we examine literature over the past twenty-five years, it could be argued that the style of most relevance to hospitality lead ers has been transformational (Bass 2000; Bennis 2002; Tichy and Ulrich 1984; Yammarino, Spangler, and Bass 1993; Avolio and Gardner 2005). It was first defined by Burns in 1978 and is easily distinguished from other approaches.
This type of leadership has the key to his charisma and strong relationships established. Transformational leaders develop and maintain open communications, provide training, support and provide all equipment necessary to achieve the common goal. (Humphreys and Einstein 2003; Stone, Russell, and Patterson 2004). Burns (1978) defined transformational leadership as follows: “… occurs when one or ore persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality. , and he described it as a process where “leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale and motivation. ” These leaders create an inspiring vision that makes the followers are guided toward the common goals of the organization. A scholar once said that transformational leaders “manage the dream” (Bennis 2000). A research team conducted a project to examine how leadership styles influence in hotel’s front-office employees. The results of the study showed that the values of transformational leaders significantly highlighted for motivation and employee satisfaction. Clark, Hartline, and Jones 2009; Hermalin 1998). Harris and Brander Brown (1998), and Mia and Patiar (2001) state that hotel products are perishable and services are intangible. As such, in the competitive environment hotel managers may find it difficult to manage their respective departments effectively. It is known the importance that the human factor in the hospitality industry. It is important because in the hospitality industry, the customers and the mployees are in direct contact in many times during the consumption of the tourism product.
So the managers’ style leadership developed will influence to a large degree in motivation, dedication and satisfaction of the hotel’s employees. High levels of motivation and satisfaction gives as a result a better deal to the customer. Great tourism and hospitality leaders lean on worker expertise instead of making autocratic decisions, which squander emotion labor. For quite some time, increased competition and industry complexity have forced hospitality managers to adopt new methods of chieving organizational goals, particularly in improving employee performance and service quality (Testa, 2001). 6. . Transformational Leadership effects in the employees’ confidence Chun-Fang Chiang and Yi-Ying Wang performed a study about the effects produced transactional leadership and transformational leadership into trust hotel employees with the organization. They performed a study about the impact producing in the trust of the hotel’s employees by the transactional and transformational leadership styles. Together with studies from other researchers, they provided a set of hypotheses. Bennis and Nanus (1984) indicated that the trust of employees with superiors is directly related to effective transformational.
Podsakoff (1990) and Arnold(2001) also verified that transformational leadership has positive effects in terms of trust of employees. The researchers recommend a style of leadership in organizations and teams. Thus, it was found that transformational leadership generates greater confidence and more effective than the traditional leadership styles. Whitmore (2007) investigated the effects of transformational leadership, leader integrity and organizational Justice on trust. Whitmore included in their research both cognitive trust as affective trust.
The results of their research determined that transformational leadership has a positive effect on cognitive trust and affective trust on hotel employees. Shamir (1993) argued that transformational leaders acted as role models for subordinates with this ones trying to have the same successes, values and trying to win the confidence of the leader. If employees did it successfully, they will trust their leader more. Thus, transformational leadership increases the trust subordinates have in their leader. This study about transformational leadership in
Taiwan’s hotel confirmed that the direct supervisors of Taiwanese hotel employees also exercised transformational leadership. With this leadership style the director of hotel got that their employees were more motivated better attitudes and a better quality performance. Regarding the effects of transformational leadership on cognitive and affective trust, this study shows that transformational leadership of Taiwanese hotel managers positively affects both cognitive and affective trust, which supports previous research. And at the same time the cognitive trust produces the continuance commitment.
And the affective trust produced normative and affective commitment. Furthermore, employees tend to increase their affective trust and emotional attachment to their supervisors when their direct supervisors exhibit transformational leadership. This study shows that the cognitive trust that hotel employees have in management positively affects employees’ commitment to continue to work for the organization. These results are consistent with previous studies Hon and Lu believed that the relationship between management and employees will change employee work performance because of cognitive and