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is technique where magnetic field causes the drug permeation enhancement of
diamagnetic drugs across SC layer e.g.  
salbutamol sulfate and benzoic acid by
mechanism of magnetokinesis. Since most of the drugs are not magnetic in
nature, drug embedded magnetic nanoparticles can be used as drug carrier to
enhance transdermal drug delivery. In magnetophoresis pulsed electromagnetic
field is used which cause transient pores formation and altering the structures
of keratinocytes by diamagnetic repulsion. Cheng et al.
investigated the TDD of thotrexate-loaded silk
fibroin magnetic nanoparticles and used stationary magnetic field and an
alternating magnetic field. Synergetic effect (messaging effect) was observed
on the skin with increased permeation flux enhacment under stationary magnetic
field and enhanced and effective drug permeation under alternating magnetic
field in invitro. Attenuated total reflection FTIR analysis revealed that
alternating magnetic field changes the gel like ordered SC lipid bilayer
structure to more lipid crystalline state which leads to increased lipid
fluidity of SC layer and thus enhanced permeation. Recent studies also
established that the messaging action causes much deeper penetration and hence
enhanced drug permeation though transfollicular route.
During messaging, physiological hair movement is stimulated and it act as a
pump which pushes nanoparticles deep into hair follicles. Murthy et al. (2010) also reported that
octanol/water partition coefficient of drugs also increase on exposure to the
magnetic field. Magnetophoresis offers advantages like 1) there is no
implication of magnetic field on the skin ; 2) it can be easily moulded into
different shape and sizes 3) it does not require prior charging/ power; 4) it
can be used safely and no sterility issues are there. Murthy et al (2010) have
fabricated a cutaneous patch of lidocaine where neodymium of known equal
strength were arranged and anchored in parallel on backing membrane and onto
this membrane a thin film of HPMC gel of lidocaine hydrochloride was spread and
whole system was then fixed onto a adhesive 3m form tape. Magnetophoresis is
relatively more economical to other physical enhancement systems and much

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