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One of the genetic mutations that can occur in a person would be color blindness. Color blindness makes people see things in a different perspective. Color blindness represents a condition that affects the perception of colors. Red-green color vision defects are the most common form of color blindness. Affected individuals have trouble distinguishing between some shades of red, yellow, and green. Blue-yellow color blindness, which are rarer, cause problems with differentiating shades of blue and green and cause difficulty distinguishing dark blue from black. These two forms of color blindness disrupts color perception but do not affect the sharpness of vision.Color blindness occurs when you receive a genetic mutated gene on the X chromosome. Researchers have seen that there can also be the color blindness developing in other chromosomes as well. However, overall, we see that color blindness is one of the many effects of genetic mutation. Researchers have went into the idea of genetic mutation in order to see if that is something that causes color blindness. They go on to explain how there are “three types of cones in the human eye: red, green, and blue. They had further researched and found out that people have lost a whole color cone because of the genetic mutation that occurred to the person. Proteins play a big role in the process of the genetic mutation since when there is a misplaced protein, then it causes for the human eye for example to lose some of the colors that it’s supposed to have and causes the color blindness. “Mutations in the OPN1LW, OPN1MW, and OPN1SW genes cause the forms of color vision deficiency described above. The proteins produced from these genes play essential roles in color vision. They are found in the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye,” Researches observing the changes in the mutation for the color blindness searches and shows that there are certain things that cause for the color blindness to occur.When describing the colors in the human eye, the researcher said “The OPN1LW, OPN1MW, and OPN1SW qualities give directions to making the three opsin shades in cones. The opsin produced using the OPN1LW quality is more delicate to light in the yellow/orange piece of the obvious range, and cones with this shade are called long-wavelength-touchy or L cones. The opsin produced using the OPN1MW quality is more delicate to light amidst the noticeable range, and cones with this color are called center wavelength-touchy or M cones. The opsin produced using the OPN1SW quality is more touchy to light in the blue/violet piece of the noticeable range, and cones with this shade are called short-wavelength-delicate or S cones.” This is what the researchers described as the process of the mutation. There is a big process that is included with color blindness and how there is a loss of color in the human eye that causes the contrast of colors that are seen and brings the problem. Researchers has also said that this is heredity and that it can be received from your parents. You can receive a mutated gene on the X chromosome which would cause for the disorder. “Hereditary changes including the OPN1LW and OPN1MW quality reason red-green shading vision absconds. These progressions prompt a non appearance of L or M cones or to the generation of strange opsin shades in these cones that influence red-green shading vision.” The researchers describe the abnormality as seen above. There are different things that are affected that overall, make your colors look different. It talks about how the cones are affected in the eye by the genetic mutation. The main ones affected in this case would be the blue and the green colors since the cone would be the ones that receive the mutations and would be the ones that are majorly affected. “Blue cone monochromacy happens when hereditary changes influencing the OPN1LW and OPN1MW qualities avert both L and M cones from working ordinarily. In individuals with this condition, just S cones are utilitarian, which prompts decreased visual keenness and poor shading vision. The loss of L and M cone work additionally underlies the other vision issues in individuals with blue cone monochromacy.” This is a further explanation on what is affected by the mutation and the changes that the eyes go through when it is taking in the color blindness. It explains how everything goes to a decrease and it is not like the normal colors that the eyes would have. There is major losses in the cones of the colors which causes the color to change how the person would see something normally and alter the colors to give a different perspective of what they are looking at. “A few issues with shading vision are not caused by quality changes. These non hereditary conditions are portrayed as gained shading vision inadequacies. They can be caused by other eye issue, for example, ailments including the retina, the nerve that conveys visual data from the eye to the mind (the optic nerve), or regions of the cerebrum engaged with preparing visual data.” there are also things that are non heredity, or things that you receive in birth, but they happen on their own. There are medication that is given to the people that suffer with color blindness but it doesn’t efficiently eliminate the problem. They will still have the problem since one it would be heredity and there’s not much ways to fix the mutation that occurred in the X chromosome. “The researchers found that mutations to a gene called ATF6, a key regulator of the unfolded protein response, can lead to achromatopsia, a hereditary visual disorder characterized by color blindness, decreased vision, light sensitivity, and uncontrolled eye movement in children.” There is also evidence that the mutations can bring upon other things as well, such as Achromatopsia as mentioned. This is really big in children as well and is another cause as to why children would have color blindness. It decreases many things in the eye which cause for the loss of colors and the adormality to occur. “Based on mouse studies, the researchers suspect that the cone cells of people with achromatopsia are not permanently damaged and could be revived by enhancing the pathway that regulates the unfolded protein response. Several drugs that activate this pathway have already been approved by the FDA for other conditions and could potentially benefit patients with achromatopsia.” They are looking for ways in which they can help aid this disorder. They don’t think it’s completely impossible to not revert the eyes into what it would normally be. They think that with certain drugs and other medicine that is available out there for use, they are able to change the ways the colors are viewed and put them back to the way they were. “Five genes had previously been linked to achromatopsia; however, they accounted for only about half of all cases,” said Tsang. “Using next-generation gene sequencing on a small group of patients, we found that mutations in a sixth gene — ATF6 — can independently lead to the disease.” They have found out the five genes that have been linked with the disease that causes the disorder and believed that those were the only ones. However, with further research, they noticed that there was a sixth gene that could also be affecting the eye and causing the problem. There is still being research made in this topic. Right now, researchers are trying to find a way in which they can cure this disorder or prevent in from happening. There are being animals tested right now to see if there is something safe that humans can use for their color blindness. One way they are thinking of is using an injection that contains a virus but that won’t get human sick. They have also mentioned that they can have surgery as another option but they say it may be too risky to do so which is why they want to figure out others ways. The fluid goes into the eye of the human and th virus finds the right part of the retina to treat. If they find this to work, people will only need one visit and they will be able to either reduce their color blindness or cure it in its totality. They know it will be hard to find treatments and medicine to try and prevent this from happening, but for now researchers are still looking into possible solutions and are putting people safety first since they don’t want to worsen the disorder or kill the people with the treatment. In conclusion, color blindness is big right now. Its something thats hereditary and that can’t be avoided. However, there can be processes that are taken in order to improve this problem and get it close to normal as possible. There is still a lot of research to be done, but so far we have got a good look at things what cause color blindness, specifically genetic mutation, and take steps to further research and find ways to avoid it.

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