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The vast research into the aetiology of BPD provides us with broad framework of potential reasons for the development of this disorder, reasons under psychological, biological and social. 
In terms of psychological causation: insecure attachment style (Zanarini and Frankenburg, 1997), childhood trauma (Van der Kolk et al, 1994), socio-emotional (Barnow et al., 2009) and lack of a robust sense of self (Goldstein 1996) all seem to hold one key to such a complex question; why do clients develop BPD? Van der Kolk et al (1994) found that BPD clients have difficulty regulating their emotions, which could be linked to any trauma experienced at a young age. This research seems to be supported by statistics showing that approximately 87% of BPD clients have unfortunately experienced some form of trauma, with the predominant forms being that of sexual and physical abuse (Perry and Herman, 1993). However, it is important to mention that the age at which the abuse occurred in childhood is a key factor. A lack of cognitive processing and understanding due to immaturity does not allow a child to full integrate the trauma with their experience. This can lead to different degrees of severity and psychological development, the younger the child the worse the impact (Van der Kolk et al., 1994) and gives professionals more of an insight into the causes and reasons for specific behaviours. 

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Secondly there are the social factors for BPD development. Social constructionists believe that it is through our social context and societal forces that BPD became apparent. A failed sense of identity or underdevelopment due to social structures and rules being thrust upon individuals has led to disturbances in the development of personalities (Jorgensen, 2006). Individuals who have goals of self-determination and autonomy can come into conflict with societies that exert and ‘overcontrol’ through taboos and acceptable behaviours. This dissonance can lead to conflict within the individual and contribute to the personality instability. Changes in our social world, specifically rapid changes, that effect families and communities have also been speculated to have a negative effect on individuals. Millon (1995) uses the biological-psychological-social factors as the reasoning behind abnormal development thus resulting in identity underdevelopment. Furthermore, Linehan (1993) suggested that emotional instability due to childhood environments are important contributing factors. Children in an invalidating environment who are not able to cope with increased levels of frustration  can result in said child not knowing how to actually feel in their environment as their emotional responses did not receive validation. In this bleak view, Linehan did highlight that through community unity and action, these potentially maladaptive behaviours could be rectified. 

Lastly, with regards to biological factors, twin studies have portrayed a genetic basis in BPD developing due to certain characteristics such as impulsivity and affective instability, which are two of the contributing factors to a potential BPD diagnosis, being traits that have been passed down through generations (Livesley et al., 1998). Moreover, studies on the characteristics of BPD such as aggression, have been shown to be caused by a predisposing genetic vulnerability (Siever, Torgensen and Gunderson, 2002). According to Rutter (1987)), it is these types of ‘temperamental characteristics’ that can link to instability in personality. However, the majority of these studies were not able to demonstrate conclusive biological markers, therefore it is generally believed that biological factors are not the sole cause for the development of BPD. Due to the multilayered natural of the condition the likelihood of the origin being singularly linked to one aspect is slim. Each theory has focused on an aspect of an individuals development, however it is more likely that a complex combination of psychological, social and biological factors are to blame. 

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