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Periodontitis
is a prevalent multifactorial inflammatory condition characterised by loss of
supporting periodontium and aggressive destruction of gingival tissues. Factors
affecting periodontal health are malnutrition, oral hygiene, genetic and epigenetic
factors, systemic health, and nutrition etc. It is caused when host resistance
is reduced and the virulence factor of an organism is increased resulting in
periodontitis. Deficiency of vitamins cause periodontal destruction, though the
exact mechanism is still unknown. Vitamin deficiency may affect any of the
basic periodontal defence factors such as the integrity of the dentogingival
barrier and the turnover of its constituent cells. Therefore, nutritional
imbalance throughout the life cycle can impair healing and tissur regeneration leading
to increase susceptibility to oral infections .

 

The
B-complex vitamins are involved cell production, repair and regeneration. They are
quintessential for the synthesis of DNA and RNA. This makes them important for
the production of new cells for tissue formation and maintainance.

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 The most common symptoms found in Vit B12
deficiency is Glossitis ( Inflammation of tongue) and Glossalgia (A burning or painful sensation in the tongue. Also called glossodynia).
Vitamin B deficiency  causes loss of the
integrity of the oral mucosa.

The oral
manifestations of the loss of integrity include pale mucosa , eryethematous
patches, candidiasis, angular cheilitis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis ,glossitis
and a burning mouth.

 

Vitamin B 12 is not
derived from plants or animals, they are  produced by small microorganisms like yeast,
fungi and molds They have various synonyms like cobrynamide, cobamide, cyanocobalamin,
cobinamide, aquocobalamin, cobalamin, , hydroxcobalamin, and nitrotocobalamin..

 

Vitamin
B12 requires a substance called ‘ Intrinsic factor’ for its entery into the
Gastro – Intestinal Tract . IF is an unique protein which helps vitamin B12
reach rest of the body by facilitating its transport across stomach and the
intestines.

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