With this proposition, a question immediately arise which is whether between
the truth and knowledge exists any correspondence at that time.
He starts with a
perfect identity of the known and the knower, an identity that cannot be detected
within subjectivity. With this notion of complete identity on subjectivity, the
common-sense understanding differentiates conditional knowledge, which is the
combination knowledge comes from reality from unconditional knowledge, which is
extracted from human intelligence and analytic and indeed is no real knowledge.
Moving beyond the conditional knowledge of the Absolute to the unconditional
knowledge of the Absolute which is an immediate affirmation of this
affirmation. As immediate knowledge of the absolute, Reason is Absolute
mentioned here is the idea of God as ‘an immediate, absolute, unconditional identity’.
The Spirit unconditionally aware its absolute which can never be further based
in concept, is which Schelling calls ‘intellectual intuition’. It is called intuition
due to it concept is not mediated yet but still immediate, and it is
intellectual due to it stays beyond the reality and it has as its certify its
self-affirmation. As the unconditional base of knowledge, ‘intellectual
intuition’ is not even related to of inner sense. Indeed, what Fichte calls
‘intellectual intuition’ is not seen to be a product of the inner sense but belongs
to the unconditional absolute and stays beyond the self-consciousness circle.
The nature of
Reason can be assumed to be ‘intellectual intuition’ whose thing is exclusively
the absolute which is unique and substance. By the high moral standards of this
affirmation, Reason acknowledges “the eternal impossibility of non-being”.
Being here is not an indication of God as something internal or external, but
God and being here is the product of analytic, immediately and unconditionally object
without duration. This absolute identity is infinite by high moral standards of
its idea. Thence, God can neither be concerned as the last result of the
self-negation of divergence, nor be included in a process of product. The
indivisibility and univocity of Being or God is neither a numerical idea nor a notion
of ensemble as aggregate unity of finite individual. This is due to the
indivisibility and univocity of the God is the base for infinite separation in
form or by chance.
God as the
absolute identity is a intrinsical, qualitative identity. Absolute indiscrimination
follows from the essential recognition of the absolute. Therefore, absolute indiscrimination
is not in-itself intrinsical but a quantitative recognition. Indeed, there is a
difference between absolute identity and absolute indiscrimination. The contradictory
between real and ideal, between subject and object grows out of this
indifference. This is the creation of the finite world. The theory of potencies
in triplicates here is explained by Schelling which are “the essential modes of
apparitions of the real and ideal universes”. Even the potencies in triplicates
are “the essential modes of apparitions” of the finite universes, they could
not be useable to the absolute identity.
the theory of potencies, introduces the existing of the finite universes – the
are originally object. The finite’s existing, are non-being in respect to the
universal, is absolute identity, but examined independently, they are not perfectly
devoid of being. They are in part being and in part non-being.
The notion Hegel used as the essential point in his
philosophy is the concept of Reason, as concerned to his idea of ‘God’. To him,
the only Thought Which Philosophy bring with it to the completion of History is
the simple conception of Reason, that reason is the sovereign of the World,
that the history of the World, therefore, present us with a rational process. Pious persons
believe that God has an unknowable plan that guides history. To explain history
is to depict the passions of mankind, the genius and the active powers, that
play their part on the grate stage, and the providentially determined process
which they exhibit constitutes what is the general called the plan of
Providence. Pious person is encouraged to recognize in particular
circumstances, something more than a mere chance, to acknowledge the guiding
hand of God. But Hegel believes that this is close to the truth, but that God’s
plan is knowable through philosophy. The “God’s” Hegel frequently mentioned as
‘Reason”. This Reason to Hegel is not simply a logical thinking, an Idea or
intension exists beyond reality, something invisible and abstracts, which cannot
be expose itself completely, and stays in the heads of mankind.
The Reason here, to
Hegel is the substance of the Universe, which involve all the objects, the
processes, all the system and everything, every concept with a name or without
a name. On the other hand, it is the Infinite Energy of the Universe. It is the
Infinite complex of things, their entire Essence and Truth. Pious persons
believe help has unexpectedly come to an individual in great perplexity and
need. But in the history of the World, the Individuals we had to deal with are
peoples, totalities that are States (Burns & Payment-Pickard, 2000, S. 84-89).
Reason sovereigns the world. The Reason is mentioned here which is not a
brilliance human’s mind and their intelligence as the self-consciousness. It is
also not Spirit. However, Spirit is the essence of Reason (Burns & Payment-Pickard, 2000, S. 86). It is necessary to
clearly differentiate these three concept – they are essential concepts in
Hegel’ philosophy. All the processes of the facts
in the Universal, for example, the solar system in the movement of an unchangeable
rule, they are the apart the Reason. All the objects and concept in this
‘Reason’ interact in rational processes. To me, the ‘rational’ should be
emphasized and concerned as a matter. Because in the complex Universal,
irrational processed will disappear itself or be destroyed by rational
existence. A thought of this kind — that Nature is an embodiment of Reason;
that it is unchangeably subordinate to universal laws, appears nowise striking
or strange to us. that Reason governs and has governed the World — and
raises the question of the possibility of a knowledge of God (The Philosophy of History, S.
significant concept in Hegel’s philosophy is ‘Spirit’. In fact, it includes the
entire mental and morality of human being. It is indeed only the impersonal and
abstract use of the term that is open to objection; an objection which can be
met by an appeal to the best classical usage. To Hegel, Spirit is the essence
which to distinguish human being with animal. One indisputable instance may
suffice in confirmation: “Their horses i.e., of the Egyptians are flesh and
not spirit.” (The Philosophy of History, S. 6-7). This is the
obvious qualitative difference between human beings and animals. the Spirit
(der Geist) that leads into Truth, knows all things, penetrates even into the
deep things of the Godhead.
concept of God in in the Wissenschaftslehre
the time before Fichte’s work, God was noted as completely transcendent. God is
concerned as an inherent part of the world and cannot be separated from the
world in the age of Wissenschaftslehre.
It seems like the Wissenschaftslehre targets
to draw a logical conclusion from the absolute Ego to the individual Ego. The
absolute Ego is established as unconditioned ground of the individual Ego and
Non-Ego. From the individual Ego and Non- Ego, the unconditioned ground builds
up the absolute Ego. Base on this point, the definition of absolute Ego could
be understood as an “Ego in whose self-determination all the Non-Ego is
determined.” The concept of this absolute Ego is also the idea ‘God’ and the
belief in God is denoted by the exertion to attain this absolute Ego. Because
the human capability and knowledge has no practical perception of this idea,
therefore, we cannot be able go further from this unconditional belief. In the
empirical perception, it is known as God. On the other hand, in the theoretical
aspect, it is the Absolute Ego. Fichte also explain to Jacobi that Absolute Ego in
the Wissenschaftslehre can be understood as God, which is
deduced from the individual Ego (Leighton, 1895).
compare with the ‘God’ in Hegel, the idea of God that was identical with the
Absolute Ego which is drawn from the individual Ego seems to be the subjective
point of view and too abstract. It also seems to narrow down the power of ‘God’
to the world and the universal.
The concept of God in Taylor
During the time which people show
the attitudes, behaviors and activities that have no religious aspect and no
spiritual basic, Charles Taylor has efforted to protect the phenomenon of
religion. However, in his study on the Western secularization, there is no clue
of the disappearing of religion, it was simply experiencing the change of
itself as a process of development. As I understand, this process is some point
relevant the process of development of History in Hegel’s Philosophy and he
uses the analogy of the phoenix to illustrate the process.
In addition, Taylor analysis also demonstrates
that the significance of religion still remains firmly. It is not faded away or
decreases in any level. The religion presents in different way, stays private
and shows in public. To prove the being present and