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Quinn and Iverson argued that students “need
to be engaged more and to be put at the centre of the learning experience to change
from ‘passive vessel’ to ‘active participant'” (as cited in Pannesse &
Carlesi, 2007).

Delacruz (2011) evaluated games as tools to
support formative assessment and examined how varying the level of detail about
a game’s scoring rules affected learning and performance in mathematics. Her
research found that combining elaborated scoring explanation with incentives
for accessing game feedback resulted in higher learning gains.

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According to Gee (2007), high quality immersive
games require players to think systemically and consider relationships instead
of isolated events or facts. The abundance of options and possible decision
points within games forces players to not only apply their knowledge but to
adapt their knowledge to varying situations. They must think abstractly because
they are playing abstractly. This helps to develop their skills in
decision-making, innovation, and problem-solving (Johnson et al., 2011).

The 2011 Horizon report suggests that
augmented reality and game-based learning will gain widespread use in two to
three years (Johnson, Smith, Willis, Levine, & Haywood, 2011).

The Education Arcade examined case studies
and analyses of the games I Love Bees and Civilization, which demonstrate the higher-order
cognitive skills of collaboration and collective intelligence, as well as
analysis and complex argument (Klopfer et al, 2009).

A recent
large-scale review of educational gaming in schools surveyed over 500 teachers
across Europe and has reinforced these findings, citing that beyond increased
motivation, teachers using games in the classroom have also noted improvement
in several key skills areas (Joyce, Gerhard & Debry, 2009, p. 85):

Although a large
number of researchers are convinced about the effectiveness of serious games
and gamification for  educational  purposes, 
there  is  a 
lack  of  high 
quality empirical  evidence  that 
they improve  learning  outcomes 
(De  Freitas 
Jarvis,  2007).  A 
number  of  meta-analyses 
have  been conducted  for 
empirically  evaluating  the  use  of 
serious  games  and 
gamification  to  increase 
the effectiveness of training and learning and there are still no firm
conclusions (Connolly et al., 2012; Girard 
et  al., 2012; Ke,  2009; Sitzmann,  2011). 
More  rigorous  evidence 
of  the  effectiveness 
of gamification to improve learning is needed as well as improving our
understanding of the nature of engagement in games (Connolly et al., 2012).

Marzano (2007) has
been involved in over 60 studies on using games in the classroom and their
effect on student accomplishment which showed a 20 percentile increase in their
achievement. Several studies have concluded that games had positive effects on
problem solving, achievement, and interest and engagement in task learning
(Kim, Park, & Baek, 2009; Tuzun et al., 2008; Wideman, Owston, Brown,
Kushnirk, Pitts, et al. 2007; Oyen and Bebko, 1996; Robertson & Howell,
2008). This study proposed that teacher-made instructional card games have a
positive effect on the learning of chemistry concepts.

The findings of the
content analysis process revealed factors influencing the academic performance
in Biology (Tom, Coetzee and Heyns, 2014). They therefore  concluded 
that the main factor identified were biological  science 
contents,  characteristics  of 
educators,  educational  strategies, 
resources  and biological science
assessment.

Snezana et al.
(2011) outlined in his study that academic achievement  in lessons 
began  with  experiment 
or  slide  demonstration 
was  higher  than lessons beginning  with 
lecture  method.

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