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Research Ethics is essential to adhering to ethical
principles and protecting the safety and wellness rights of research
participants. Then, all human-involved research should be reviewed by ethical
committees to ensure that appropriate ethical standards are maintained.

The existing research ethics source is the Belmont Report
published in 1979. It is a major work on ethics in healthcare research. Its
main purpose is to protect subjects and participants in clinical trials or
research studies. The Belmont Report is written by a panel of experts and
proposes three ethical research principles involving human subjects. The three
key ethical principles quoted from Belmont’s report are autonomy, beneficence,
and justice.

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In general, autonomy can be defined as an individual’s right
to determine the activities they want or not participate. In particular,
autonomy requires an individual to understand what they are asking to do,
making a reasonable decision about their entry and effect, and making the
choice to freely participate in force. The principle of protecting autonomy is
known as the consent process, in which a researcher provides potential research
participants with complete disclosure of the types of research, risks, benefits
and alternatives, and gives a chance to ask before deciding to take any part.
Participants are considered as reduced autonomy, based on decreased cognitions
such as children, cognitive disabilities or mental illness. Other conditions
such as prisoners or people with severe illnesses are considered vulnerable
populations. In some cases, children and inmates have certain protections to
protect their autonomy as required by law.


Beneficence can be clearly defined is the benefit of
research participants. Profitable principles are behind research efforts to
minimize risk to participants and maximize benefits to participants and


Justice requires careful selection of participants, preventing
participants from being unfair participants to participate, such as prisoners
and organized children. The principle of justice requires those who carry out
the burden of inquiry to benefit from the investigation, and principles that
are often violated by the export of clinical trials to less developed

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