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Some say that Canada is safe and free. Although it may be true today, Canada was not always the nice and peaceful place it is now. Canada’s history demonstrates that the country grew and got stronger. Unfortunately, history also shows that Canada gets violent with other countries and even itself. Canada’s identity in relation to war and peace worsened since 1914. This can be shown by the victory in the Battle of Ortona and the kidnapping that caused the October Crisis. It can also be proven by the injustice during the Oka Crisis.  Canadians proved their strength during the Battle of Ortona which resulted in numerous deaths and injuries. The casualties of this battle were caused by Canadian violence. The Battle of Ortona was a big factor in Canada’s reputation of being aggressive because of the tactics and the teamwork which later lead to a powerful victory. Firstly, the tactics used in this battle prove that Canadians are vicious. During this battle, the streets were covered in rubble. The Canadians used the rubble to their advantage. This can be proven by the deceiving tactic of mouse-holing. With mouse-holing, combatants would undercover hiding behind this rubble, without needing to expose themselves to enemy fire or observation. They would also use weapons such as anti-tank guns to breach the walls of a building, as houses within Ortona shared adjoining walls. This shows that the Canadians were strategizing to win no matter what the circumstances are. Ortona had narrow streets that did not fit tanks and that was the only way the soldiers made room for themselves. Another tactic that they used in this battle was smashing through walls. This fighting technique left 964 wounded, 867 killed, and 1,300 civilians dead. This proves that the soldiers’ fighting not only portrayed them as violent, but also killed innocent civilians. Secondly, the Canadians teamed up on the Germans and attacks from all sides. This can be shown by the initial Canadian attack that was made on the 20th of December by Canadian 2nd Brigade’s Loyal Edmonton Regiment. Meanwhile, elements of the division’s 3rd Infantry Brigade launched a northerly attack to the west of the town in an attempt to outflank and cut off the town’s rear communications. This demonstrates that the Canadian soldiers were prepared to fight and this proves that they are very strong and will do anything to win a battle. Lastly, the victory of the Canadians shows that they are truly murderous. Since the Canadians were observant, they patrolled the whole town on the 28th to find that the German troops had retreated the night before. They took advantage of that and liberated the town of Ortona on the morning of December 28th. This Canadian victory is significant because it only lasted eight days. It confirms that they are strong fighters which will be a massive problem for the enemies in future battles or even wars. In conclusion, the Battle of Ortona changed Canada’s identity for the worse because it showed that they use wounding tactics and teamwork, which led to an injurious Canadian victory that regrettably will never be forgotten.  Next, the October Crisis confirms that Canadians are violent. The kidnapping of Pierre Laporte and James Cross and the reintroduction of the War Measures Act during the October Crisis prove that Canada’s identity associated with war got worse since 1914. Firstly, Pierre Laporte’s life was threatened by FLQ members. The FLQ proved that Canadians cannot solve conflicts peacefully. The can be shown by Pierre Laporte being kidnapped and killed. On 17 October, the body of Pierre Laporte was found in the trunk of a car left near Saint-Hubert airport. These unfortunate events assist in showing that Canadians are brutal even to their own citizens. Next, the kidnapping of James Cross occurred soon after the killing of Pierre Laporte. These kidnappings only led to more dangerous disasters. In fact, according to the Global Terrorism Database, there were at least 4340 terrorist attacks between 1970 and 1976 alone. That proves that the barbarity of the FLQ gave the some Canadians permission to harm others. Cross’s kidnappers threatened to kill him unless the government released 23 prison inmates charged with crimes committed in the name of the Front, gave them a half-million dollar ransom and the broadcast of the FLQ manifesto. This capture quickly became the most serious terrorist act on Canadian ground after official, Minister of Immigration Pierre Laporte was kidnapped and killed. This proves that some Canadians are not willing to make peace and will do anything, even if it means killing someone, to get what they want. Finally, the events of the October Crisis led to another War Measures Act. Trudeau was interviewed by Tim Ralfe and was quoted of saying: “Well, there are a lot of bleeding hearts around who just don’t like to see people with helmets and guns. All I can say is, go on and bleed. But it’s more important to keep law and order in this society than to be worried about weak-kneed people who don’t like the looks of…” Three days after this interview, Trudeau, caring about the law, put the War Measures Act into effect once again. This act had a strong impact on all of Canada. According to opinion polls, an overwhelming majority of Canadians supported this action. Even though most people agreed to this, the WMA still limited civil liberties. This shows that even when trying to help, Canada is still taking control over its citizens and the disagreements could have caused more violence. It is even believed that the federal imposition of the War Measures Act helped push support for independence in Quebec. Overall, the kidnapping of Pierre Laporte and James cross and the War Measures Act being in effect once again during October Crisis proves that Canada’s violent attitude towards people in its own country is awful and their identity in relation to war worsened. Lastly, the Oka Crisis has a massive impact on why Canadians were not peaceful in the past. The Oka Crisis had a negative impact on war and peace in the 1980s and 1990s because the people of Oka took control over the Mohawks land, and had no considerations for their rights. It was also because the Mohawks tried fighting back with violence. Firstly, the people of the town Oka took control over the Mohawks land. This made the Mohawks feel like they were unimportant. This can be proven when in 1989, the mayor of the town announced permission had been given to expand the golf course and develop a residential area on the land. Not only did the government of Oka built a golf course in the Mohawks’ sacred land, they also gave themselves permission to expand it. This shows that the Mohawks were being treated unfairly and that the people of Oka had no respect for the Mohawks land. It also proves that Canadians are greedy and they were not willing to resolve the conflict peacefully. Secondly, the Oka Crisis confirms that there was injustice towards the Indigenous Canadians. This can be proven by Sam Elkas, Quebec public security minister saying that “it was difficult negotiating because there were two camps that we were negotiating with. I’m not suggesting we should have been negotiating with (Mohawk) Warriors but that’s what happened.¨ This shows that the people of Quebec were so ill-mannered that they felt that the Mohawks did not even deserve to be negotiated with. Lastly, when the Mohawks were fed up with the horrible way they were being treated, they decided to fight back which resulted in violence. Since the Mohawks knew they could not do it alone, they needed to find help. They got help from John Ciaccia, Quebec’s Minister of Native Affairs. He wrote a letter of support for the natives showing his opinion. This letter stating that “these people have seen their lands disappear without having been consulted or compensated, and that, in my opinion, is unfair and unjust, especially over a golf course” proved to the Mohawks that they weren’t alone. They also received assistance from Aboriginal supporters when they created blockades on roads leading to Oka and the Kanesatake reserve. The Mohawks blockaded the Mercier Bridge and effectively cut off access between Montréal’s southern suburbs and the Island of Montréal.  That showed that some people wanted to stand against the unfair things that were occurring. After that, relations between Indigenous and the people of Oka (and other non-Indigenous people) in the area worsened. There was also violence when the blockades were created. It can be shown when an armed police assault on a blockade at Kanehsatake on July 11, 1990, and the brutality began. One police officer got shot dead in a brief exchange of gunfire. Following this, 2,000 police were mobilized, later replaced by 4,500 soldiers with tanks & APC’s, along with naval & air support. This shows that one argument over land (and the golf course) cost the lives of many people and turned into many weeks of violence, force, and strength. In conclusion, the Oka Crisis has a negative impact on why Canadians were not peaceful in the past because the people of Oka took control over the Mohawks land, had no considerations for their rights, and the Mohawks tried fighting back with violence. 

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