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Task 1 

Introduction to the skeleton :
           The human body contains 206 bones. They are located in two different regions of the body, the Axial and the appendicular bones. There are 80 bones in the axial which includes the skull, vertebral column and the rib cage. The appendicular bones are the bones which helps us in the movement of the body like shoulder bones (scapulae), pelvis (ilium, pubis, ischium) and limbs. Bones can further be classified into flat bones and the long bones. Flat bones make up our skull which protects our brain, rib cage protects our heart and then we have pelvis. Flat bones are made up of inner spongy bones and the outer shell is made up of the compact bones. Long bones are the humerus on the upper arm or the femur in the lower leg. Long bones provide framework for movement of the body. 
           Some of the functions of a skeleton are as follows: 

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it supports our body and provides framework. The vertebrae allow us to bend, stretch and rotate our body.
it protects our most vital organs like brain, heart and lungs.
blood production- red blood cells are made in the ribs and limb bones.
the bones act as reservoirs storing vital minerals such as calcium. 

Bone development :

           Endochondral ossification is the replacement of cartilage model with bone. In the
           foetus  the bone the bone is cartilaginous. Cartilage is the soft elastic tissue that covers   
           and protect the ends of long bones at the joints and is a structural component of the rib    
           cage, nose, the ear, the bronchial tubes, intervertebral discs, meniscus of knee. It is of 
           three types Hyaline, elastic and fibre. The primary ossification centre develops  in the 
           shaft which produces bone. Bones are either spongy or compact. They are classified 
           into long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid. Bones protect some of our organs like 
           brain, heart and lungs. They also helps in  movement, framework and shape for the 
           body. Bones also produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. The central chondrocytes becomes quite active, they increase in size and die. Blood vessels then invade at the mid section, cells differentiate and form osteoblasts, which lay down bone and then the bone collar forms. Spongy bone is initially formed . Osteoclasts later resorb this and the medullary cavity is formed Haemopoietic cells fill the cavity and form the marrow. Later, between birth and puberty, secondary ossification centres develop at the ends of the long bones and the bone growth starts taking place. Width grows by continual deposition of bone produced by the periosteum. Length- occurs at epiphyseal growth plates, which starts to disappear at puberty. Ossification occurs in the diaphysial side, new cartilage grows on the epiphyseal side. Bone is continually being remodelled. Osteoclasts resorb bone and new bone is laid down by osteoblasts. 

Case Study :

Mia is a 5 year old girl who has recently entered care. Mia was put into care due to profound neglect at home, also, her neighbours were not aware there was a child at the property and she was not enrolled at a school.

Skeleton is the hard structure in the living beings which protects the internal organs like brain, heart and lungs and helps in the movement and framework of the body and it also provides shape of the body. Skeleton is under the skin, the muscle and the tissue of body and is made of bones. All the bones are joined together and they form the skeletal system of the body. 

The bones are made of the collagen, which is a living and a growing tissue. The protein that provides framework is the collagen and the mineral that adds strength and hardens the framework is calcium phosphate. So, the combination of collagen and calcium makes the bone stronger and flexible enough to withstand the stress. 99% of the body’s calcium is contained in the bones and the remaining 1% is found in the blood. So, a bone would only be healthier if it has enough protein, vitamin D and calcium. Vitamin D helps the body to  absorb the calcium. The best source to get vitamin D is the ‘sunlight’. If the body will lacks in vitamin D it can lead to bone diseases like Osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become very weak and fragile and are very likely to break. Mia’s condition is very related to osteoporosis. The bones become very less dense and the risk of breaking down of them is really high as mention earlier as well. Mia can be prone to the risk of wrist fracture, hip fracture and the vertebrae fractures, these are the very common injuries in people with Osteoporosis condition. It can also occur in the other bones like arm or pelvis. Even a cough or a sneeze can cause rib fracture or the partial collapse.

Treatment is necessary and the doctor is the best who can suggest the most safest and the effective treatment. However Mia can take some preventive measures by making some changes to her lifestyle which can help her along with her treatment. Regular exercise like cycling, resistance and weight bearing exercises are very good for her , of course a healthy diet which is enrich in vitamin D and calcium can also help her. Anyone suffering from this condition should never smoke as it increases the rate of bone loss. Also prevention from falls is very important as a fall can easily lead to fracture. Hazards at home should be minimum like rugs and carpets have to be secure and the rubber mats should be in the bathroom and and by the sink to prevent from slipping. So Mia should be a bit extra careful. 

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