It refers to the World Wide Web. It’s the subset of content. It consist
of multiple pages, which we can access using the web browser. It is the knowledge
space where different web resources are recognised. The term www is intended in
1989 by Tim Berners Lee. HTTP (Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol) is the way to use
web pages in a computer. A phrase or word makes a link to another website with
the help of hypertext. And HTML is used to write web pages, which work in
conjunction with HTTP.
1.2: Its main function is to host
website and to transfer web content to the client computer from its hosted
website over internet. Web server follows a network protocol known as HTTP (Hyper-Text
Transfer Protocol).Web server share the information through intranets and
extranets over the internet.
1.3: It is the establishment of data
communication for world wild web. This protocol is used to connect web server
on the local network or on internet. It maintains the connection with server
and sends HTML pages back to user browser. It’s a
stateless request/response system. They maintain the connection between server
and user for only immediate request, and then closed the connection. Then HTTP
client established TCP connection
with a server and send it request command, the server sends back response and
closed the connection.
1.4: Web browser is used to access and
view the website. The function of the web browser is to render html and used to
code design webpages. Every time it loads the web pages and then processed
html, in which text, links or other items may be included. After that browser
access these items and render it into browser window. Goggle Chrome and Apple Safari
and Microsoft Internet Explorer are the examples of web browser.
Now days, Google Chrome is the web browser.
Chrome combines design with sophisticated technology to make web safer, easier
and faster Microsoft Internet Explorer is also a one of a very good browser and.
It helps in accessing webpages through internet. However, internet explorer is
a browser which allows clients to view web pages on internet.
Multi–tier architecture is a customer server architecture where
appearance, processing and data management functions are divided by logically
and physically. These functions runes on separate machine or cluster so that
every function is able to provide services at top of capacity. The separately
working of functions helps them to work efficiently and does not affect each
order while if one function isolating a problem. Multi-tier is also known as N-tier
architecture. N tier usually divide
application into presentation tier, logic tier and data tier.
One tier architecture: It is an architecture which is elaborate in
putting all the required components for software development in a single server.
When automation hit business at first, it is in the form of mainframe computer.
All processing is done on a one computer and on one place. All resources like
tape or disk driver, printers and many more were attached to the same computer.
This is the one-tier computing. This tier is simple and efficient but it is
Two tier architecture: it is the architecture where application is
running in the client machine which interacts with server like database
management system. Mainly, client application contained some or all of the
presentation logic and application navigation, business rule and database
access. The business rules were modified every time, client application had to
be changed, redistributed and tested, even when user interface remained intact.
Diagram of two tier architecture
Three-tier architecture: It is architecture
of client server which functional process logic data access, computer data
storage and user interface are maintained and developed on separate platforms
as an independent modules. It is a software design pattern and well-established
software architecture. It allows one from three tiers to be upgraded and
replaced independently. User interface is implemented on desktop PC and use
standard graphical user interface with various modules running on the
The three tiers used are as under:
1. Presentation Tier: It display information
related to services available on website and it communicate with each other
tiers by giving result to browser.
2. Application Tier. It plays
the role of transferring information between the website and the data tier,
including integration of the required decision logic or transformation of
3. Data Tier: this tier kept data independent on
application servers or business logic.
It implements persistent data storage, with
a relational database or another type of database. (Tonar, 2013)
Diagram of Three-Tier
2.2: In the web development field, three-tier is used to
refer to websites, mainly electronic commerce websites, which
are built using three tiers:
1. A front-end web server serving static content and potentially
some hidden dynamic content. In web-based application, front end is
the content presented by the browser. The content may be static or generated
2. A middle dynamic content processing and generation level application
3. A back-end database or data store, comprising both data sets
and the database management system software that manages and provides
access to the data.
3 total purchases
Get list of all mail made last
Add all purchases together
Get purchases total
Presentation tier: the upper level of application is user
interface. The important function of interface is to translate tasks and give
result to something user can understand.
Logic tier: this layer synchronise the application, process
command, and make logical decision and calculations. It moves and processes
data between two layers.
Data tier: In this tier, information is store and
retrieves from database or file system. Then information is passed back to
logic tier for processing and then finally back to the user.
3.1: When making a
website, it is important to consider user experience (UX) which shows good and
service. A web site is good if it is simple to navigate and also enjoyable to
user when they read. UX is important because of its functional design of user.
rationale tips to make a website user friendly are:
Have structure: Determine what goods and services that provide
and stick to that. Users want to blog content which are informative and
relevant. However, if user went too far off track with irrelevant content then
user should be confused.
Mobile responsive: as we all are busy in our life, it is common that
more than one people can access website at same time.
a website, it is essential that to remember to design it in a way that fit with
the unique needs and its work well. Not make website because if another company
have this and it working good for the company.
3.2: Information computer
architecture is the practice of deciding how to arrange the different parts of
something to be understandable. IA helps people to understand their surrounding
and find what they are looking for in the real world and also online.
Practicing information architecture includes facilitating the person and
organizations we work with consider their structures and language thoughtfully.
Interaction design is a design of interaction
between user and product. The aim of interaction design is to create products
which enable the user to get their object in the possible way. It is like a
giant umbrella for the user.
Six key differences (comparison and
contrast) between Information
Architecture (IA) with Interaction Design (ID) are:
IA have a look into the
layout, navigation and their types, way of finding, labelling and so on, but ID
deals with how to behave with user action and later give reaction while
allowing a user to accomplish what they are looking for
Architecture (IA) they decide what are the logical place is for particular
pieces of information. However, user will look for piece of information. Whereas
in Interaction is about how user will get there.
has a structural feature and it will belong
on the structural plane, however ID contains the right placement of information
by making mock-ups and which related on skeleton plane.
An Information Architect is like Librarian for the website.
Just as enter any library from anywhere in the world and with their relative
ease find the exact information looking for. The IA is responsible for creating
this possible in interactive software and websites. It is about finding useful
and information quickly and also maintaining that information on time.
3.3: Metadata is data that illustrate other data. The prefix
Meta defined as definition or description. So, metadata explains whatever piece
of data which is connected, whether that photography, web, data is video,
content, or spread sheets. Metadata give knowledge about data such as date
created, usage, and size of file, metadata is the key to proficiency of
information systems to classify and categorize data. It is significant to note
that organizations are overcome with structured and unstructured data and that
both need metadata.
Metadata is very
useful for images, videos, spread sheets and web pages. The usage of metadata on
web pages can be very important. Metadata for web pages contain descriptions of
the page contents that linked to content. They are mainly in the form of metatags.
The metadata including the web page description and summary is frequently
display in search results by search
engines, generating it accuracy and details very important because it can
determine whether a user decides to visit the site or not. Metatags are describe
by search engines to help decide a web page relevance, and were used as key
factor in determining position in a search. Metadata can be created manually and by
automated information processing.
authoring is the preparation of making the web documents by modern web
authoring software and tools. Web authoring software is a kind of a desktop
publishing tool that allow user to cross the complicated environment of HTML
and web coding by offering a several categories of graphical user interface.
From web authoring tools, user can see a visual result that is look like the
final project after manufactured. Web authoring tools are quite similar to HTML
editors in which they allow transferring between HTML code view and visual
design. Some of the tools are also known as what you see is what you get
Web authoring tools are tools which are
used to make Web content, hold a enormous range of software programs that
can download to a computer or access online. The strategies encourage
web-authoring tool creators to include basic features in their
products that will help Internet users with the disabilities. There are some
web authoring tools like Word processors, Desktop publishing program, Html.
4.1: A wireframe is a network
in which web designer places on web page in planning phase to explain in which
grid square various areas of website are located. A wireframe divide areas by text
and those with pictures.
At early stage, the aim is to determine structure of planned software
and test its functionality. This step has particular importance in design
process. Wireframe or mock-up is
explained in development phase. This includes content areas and also navigation
elements, footnotes, menu bars and much more. There are two types of
wireframes: static and dynamic. A static
wireframe is first draft which fundamentally explains which elements should be
included. Content and design are not so important at that stage
Advantages of wireframe:
Wireframe can get users with design process on
2. It can make changes easily and efficiently
3. Wireframe has an extra step in process, but it
save loading time and also money.
4. It allows the user to plan responsiveness for
website. It makes content development easier
for the user who wants to copy write
Disadvantages of wireframe are as under:
1. Users get bogged down with minute details. When some
user get more comfortable in looking images and branding than a grey, but this
step are not include in bit.
wireframe is too designed; it means that it will take too much time by
3. Wireframe has
lot of steps in processing, sometime user skip some step to move faster in
4. If user water
to have change in drawing, it’s very tricky.
prototype is an interactive demo of website. A prototype of a website can be
mock-up or demo of how the website is look like when it goes live.it should be any
think whether on paper sketch to a clickable HTML prototype. User mainly refer
to interactive prototype which allow user to navigate from one page to another
and also use function like drop down menus. For example: Axure and Mockingbird.
Advantages of prototype of website:
Website prototype allows the project
stakeholder to see what the final product will look like in life cycle.
Website prototype will go
through usability testing. When programming team come confident then it process
It save time and also
A website prototype is an
excellent specialized in document for designer and developer
Disadvantages of prototype of website.:
It takes more time in planning the project before development can start.
2. The cost of making change in developed
website is larger than time needed for prototyping.
For beginner in prototype, it can be tricky as there are so many options are
5.1.1: The purpose of website 1 is in this website user can sell and buy product
and it also shows vacancy of jobs for where user can apply. However, the purpose
of website2 is college website which gives information about a particular
college and the thing that they are offering.
5.1.2: Website 1 takes7.5s time to fully
upload the whole website in user operator. However, website 2 take a little
less time (7.2s) in uploading a website.
5.1.3: Website 1 can find easily without
writing whole URL whereas website 2 take more time and we have to write almost
5.1.4: Yes, both the
website has search option but trade me have big search option which is very
useful to user. However, ica website has very small search bar.
the websites cannot work with all links. There are some links which are broken
and cannot open.
5.1.6: Both website give good response
twhether open this website in phone ,tablet or in computer. As there is a
screenshot to https://www.trademe.co.nz/
screenshot of iphone
Screenshot for http://ica.ac.nz
5.1.7: The websites are attractive and user
friendly. There are reasons as under:
have presented all contact in top of the website which user need.
both have search bar
have photo which attract the user
selection is good
font size of text is fine
5.2: There are some suggestions that how website should have in
image that are in webpage, change frequently with high speed. It abstract the user
and user cannot focused on it.
is smaller. They much increased the size of contents.
user may be a colour blind, so they must change the colour of webpage
must reduce some photos for it
of content can complex the user
must increase the size of content
bar is small and difficult to write. They must increase the size
include more ne in website.
colour suddenly changed in the end, it abstracts the user.
have only two languages, they must have more languages.