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The title for my project is “Wetlands Convention” –
Convention on Wetlands of International 
Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat. The Convention on Wetlands of International
Importance is also known as the Ramsar Convention which was signed in
Ramsar, Iran, in 1971 came into force in 1975, is an intergovernmental treaty
which provides the framework for national action and international cooperation
for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.



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The initial call for an international convention on wetlands
came in 1962 at a conference that was part of the MAR project (MARshes,
MARages, MARismas), organized by Dr. Luc Hoffmann, a program established in
1960 as a result concern at the speed with which vast wetlands and other
wetlands in Europe were “rehabilitated” or otherwise destroyed,
resulting in a decrease in the number of waterfowl. Finally, at an
international meeting organized by Mr. EskanderFirouz, Director of the Iranian
Fish and Fish Department, the text of the Convention was adopted on 2 February
1971 and signed by the delegates of 18 countries the following day. The
Convention entered into force in December 1975 when UNESCO, the Depositary
Convention, received the seventh instrument of accession or ratification of the
Convention from Greece. Since its adoption, the Ramsar Convention has been
amended twice: by a protocol (a new treaty amending the original treaty) in
December 1982 and by a series of amendments to the original treaty, known as
“Amendments of Regina “. 1987

Convention’s Mission

“The conservation and wise use
of all wetlands through local, regional and national actions and international
cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development
throughout the world”. 

Originally, the Convention was set up to protect wetland
habitats for the conservation of waterfowl but it now seeks to ensure the
protection of all important wetlands. The significance of the wetlands are-:

provide fundamental ecological services and are regulators of water regimes and
sources of biodiversity at all levels – species, genetic and ecosystem.

constitute a resource of great economic, scientific, cultural, and recreational
value for the community.

play a vital role in climate change adaptation and mitigation.

encroachment on, and loss of, wetlands cause serious and sometimes irreparable
environmental damage to the provision of ecosystem services.

should be restored and rehabilitated, whenever possible. Wetlands should be
conserved by ensuring their wise use.




1. What is Ramsar convention and what is
the need to conserve wetlands? What kind of Wetlands are included in the

2. Why
need a global convention on Wetlands and why should nation join Ramsar

3. What
are the criteria for the parties to join the Convention and who may join?

4. What are the objectives of Ramsar Strategic Plan and the
“three pillars” of the Convention?

5.How does the Ramsar Convention works in correlation with
other environment-related conventions? How does the Ramsar Convention work?



For the purpose of this project, I have taken resort to the
methodology of secondary sources. Secondary source of research methodology
incorporates the use of books, articles, journals as well as use of online
resources and websites.



This research paper
focuses on the positive facet of the implementation of the Ramsar Convention.
Wetlands are assets which provides us with various ecological, economic and
social benefits. The importance of wetlands and roles played by the countries
all over the globe in the convention is being highlighted in this paper. The
paper will scrutinize the aim and implementation of the convention. It will
also focus on some ideas that would help to align the implementation of Ramsar
Convention with other multilateral environmental agreements. It highlights the
urgent and dire need for geospatial information on wetland extent, type and






Davis, T. (1997). The Ramsar Convention Manual A Guide to
the Convention on Wetlands 2nd ed.

Secretariat, R. C. (2004). The Ramsar Convention Manual: a
Guide to the Convention on Wetlands, 3rd ed.

Secretariat, R. (2015). National report on the
implementation of the ramsar convention on wetlands.

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