The manufacture of most industrial materials has
some form of impact on the environment. Research is being conducted to reduce this
impact and promote sustainable development.
such industrial material which has a substantial effect on the environment,
specifically on the carbon levels in the atmosphere is the vastly manufactured
and consumed raw material: cement.
Currently, the cement industry accounts for almost
5% 1 of the global CO2 production.
Over the recent years, cement production has witnessed an exponential increase
in developing countries to meet the needs of a rapidly urbanizing civilization
2 and the carbon levels in the environment have seen a proportional increase.
If nothing is done to control them, this ubiquitous industry will account for
nearly 33% of the global carbon levels by 2050. 3
This is indeed a cause for
worry, as CO2 is a greenhouse gas which when present in large
quantities in the atmosphere can contribute to dangerous phenomena like global
warming.4 In such a situation, it is the need of the hour to find
economically viable methods to help propagate a low CO2 emitting
It has been estimated that
fossil fuel combustions account for a mere 30% 5 of the amount of CO2 generated
during the production of cement whereas the calcination of the limestone
accounts for almost 60% of the total carbon emitted.6 This is both good as
well as bad news. The carbon emissions cannot be controlled in the cement
industry by simply increasing the energy efficiency; the problem must be
tackled at the very base itself, by adjusting or changing the constituents of
the cement, while keeping in mind the economic feasibility of the cement.
This paper gives an overview of the various strategies that the
government as well as the cement industry have considered to lessen the amount
of carbon released from the cement production process. The rest of the paper is
organized as follows: The next section reviews the industrial plans and the subsequent
section focuses on the governmental policies. After that, the conclusions are discussed
and suggestions are made for the areas that merit further research