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 Throughout our history,many people from other countries have come here to live here and
become citizens. The Thirteenth Amendment was passed on to abolish slavery. President
Abraham Lincoln believed it was an important turning point in the war, transforming the
violence to protect the nation into a fight for human freedom. After slavery, the vicious laws,
organizations, and poverty came to stay. Two major laws were introduced Jim Crow Laws and
Black Codes. These laws allowed certain limits of rights to African Americans,which included
the right to marry, own property, and sue in the court of laws.
During the Reconstruction Era,African Americans took on leading roles and held public
office and seeked legislative changes for equality and the right to vote. They separated the blacks
from the whites and reduced the progress they had made. The Jim Crow Laws were certain
things they could not do like; they could not use the same public restrooms or school. Interracial
marriage was forbidden and most blacks couldn’t vote because they could not pass the voter
literacy tests. Even through Jim Crow Laws were adopted in northern states,blacks still went
through discrimination at their jobs or when they tried to buy a house or get an education.
Black Codes also made it illegal for them to serve on juries,the right to vote, testify against
whites, or serve in state militias and it also required black sharecroppers and farmers to sign
annual labor contracts with white landowners and If they refused, they could be arrested and
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hired out for work. They had to buy land from their former white slave owners based on their
financial position and have been denied education and wages under slavery.
After the Civil War,the former slaves got a hold of the land but was rapidly grasped from
them and returned to the whites by the federal troops. After slavery,black women preferred to be
a housewife during poverty. Black churches became a focus in African American culture and
provided a development for learning,socializing and political organization. They found an
education at every level,from grade schools to basic education.
The Freedmen Bureau came into play as it established to help former slaves. It was established
in March 1865 to help people achieve political freedom and economic stability.
They took steps to improve their own condition by looking the rights that had been denied to
them which was land,financial security,education and the right to take part in the political
process but they were faced with the defeated white southerners who were determined to keep
blacks imprisoned.
The widespread of devastation in the South cause Congress to create the Freedmen’s Bureau.
The Bureau fought for the rights of the African American education,establishing scores of
public schools to which the freed people and poor whites could receive both elementary and
higher education. Honorable institutions like Fisk University,Hampton University, and Dillard
University are part of the legacy of the Freedmen’s Bureau. In the Reconstruction Era,Congress
passed and enforced laws to ensure civil and political rights to African Americans in the South.
The laws Congress passed were the 13th,14th,15th Amendments. All three Amendments
were the start of freedom for the freedom. They took up the rights,opportunities and
responsibilities of citizenship. The 14th Amendment provided equal protection to citizens.”The
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amendment resolved pre-Civil War questions of African American citizenship by stating that “all
persons born or naturalized in the United States… are citizens of the United States and of the
state in which they reside.'” ( Staff); not only did this amendment gave them
privileges and rights but it also granted them equal protection of the law. 

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