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A cross sectional study of
hypertension, blood sugar level and their correlation with Body Mass Index

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Introduction

Worldwide prevalence of obesity has seen a sharp rise, with
World Health Organisation (WHO) statistics showing that it has nearly tripled
since 1975. Obesity was once thought to be a disease of developed countries,
However, India , amongst other developing nations is now warming up to the
trend, and is seeing a rise in the ubiquity of obesity, which has reached
epidemic proportions. Indian obesity rates have almost doubled since 2005-061. Obesity, or being overweight may be
defined as an abnormal and excessive fat accumulation that leaves a person
susceptible to significant health risks. According to WHO, obesity and
overweight can be classified with the help of the Body Mass Index (BMI). A BMI
of more than or equal to 25 is classified as overweight and a BMI greater than
or equal to 30 is classified as obese.

Obesity, totally preventable disease is a prominent risk
factor and paves the way for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and
other diseases such as diabetes.

Hypertension in itself is a silent and deadly disease, owing
to the fact that one may go asymptomatic for years. Hypertension also increases
the risk of other cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction and strokes.

According to 2016 data from WHO, India has the second highest
number of people living with Diabetes Mellitus, with 62 million Indians
affected by the disease. An analysis, by the Indian Heart Association, projects
that India will be home to almost a 110 million diabetics by the year 2035.

 

Need for study

Analysing
current scenario, we can infer that India, will have an increase in the number
of people suffering from non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension and
diabetes. Therefore, there is an imminent need, to control its exponential rise
in rate. To begin the control, causative factors need to be identified and
correlations need to be made. Obesity, being one of the risk factors needs to
be controlled too. People need to be educated too, about the relation that
obesity and overweight have with non-communicable diseases, and this can be
accomplished only with proof that can be obtained by systematic observational
study.

 

 

Objectives of the study

1.    To assess the magnitude and
prevalence of obesity in the study population.

2.    To correlate the various BMI’s
obtained to blood pressure and blood sugar level and to analyse the relation
between them.

 

Materials and Methods

·      Study Design –
A cross sectional observational study will be conducted.

·      Study area –
The study will be conducted at the General Medicine outpatient department
(OPD), district hospital, Karwar.

·      Inclusion criteria – Population coming to the OPD, under 50 years of age, of both sexes,
who are willing to participate in the study

·      Study duration –The study will be conducted from 1st
June 2018 to 31st July 2018 at tertiary care centre, Karwar.

·      Sample size –
A study of around 150 people will be undertaken.

·      Procedure –

(1)Patients in the outpatient department
will first be asked for their consent. A consent form will be given, after
requesting them to participate in the study, and explaining to them what the
study pertains to and requires.

(2)A few questions will be asked about
their socio-demographic details, dietary pattern and past medicinal history.

(3)Arterial blood pressure will be
measured over the brachial artery, manually, with a sphygmomanometer.

(4) Height in meters and weight in kilograms
will be noted, and BMI will be calculated, with the following formula2 –

           

           BMI (kg/m2) = mass
(kg) / height (m)2

 

 

(5)Blood will be collected aseptically
and sent to the Biochemistry lab, for blood sugar level analysis.

 

·      Statistical Analysis – After completion of study, all the information gathered, will
be analysed and presented in suitable tabular and graphical forms. Percentages,
Pearson’s chi-square (x2) and Z-test
will be used wherever required.

 

Implications

By conducting this study, we will be
able to analyse and identify the relation that obesity, or overweight has to
hypertension, and diabetes, and show that it is indeed a risk factor for these
diseases.

 

References

1. According to the National Family
Health Survey -4 (NHFS-4) survey conducted in 2015-16.

2. BMI formula taken from CDC (Centre
for Disease Control and Prevention) website.

 

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