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We all know the story of the Kyklops, but let us not overlook the other events that Odysseus speaks of in the beginning of this book. Please focus on lines 1-112. List FIVE issues that Odysseus and/or his crew dealt with.Odysseus was held captive by KalypsoA current with the name Malea drifted the ships out to sea.Zeus creates a storm that damaged their shipsThe Lotus Eaters try to trap the men by feeding them lotus flowers, but they only succeeded in trapping three men.The men are chased out of Kikones and lost many men in the battle.Fun Stuff: Please refer to your archetype packet and hero’s journey handout. What stage are we in?The Road of TrialsWhat archetypes do you see? Identify THREE, and provide the examples.The Shadow is Polyphemus because Odysseus has to get through Polyphemus to escape his cave and get to his ships.Odysseus is the Hero because every problem he has encountered so far he has defeated like the Lotus Eaters and Polyphemus.The Figure(s) with Ultimately Good Heart(s) are the Lotus Eaters because they are not aggressive and violent, but they do trap people that visit their land and eat the lotus flowers.Study Questions:1) Odysseus is an epic hero who also has flaws. Defend this statement by referring to the ENTIRE definition of an epic hero (introductory packet) and using your knowledge of the story.Odysseus has to navigate many obstacles in order to return home. To do this, he accomplishes many great tasks and feats that are seemingly impossible. Even so, this does not come without mistakes and flaws, as nobody is perfect. In Odysseus’ case, he lies to get out of sticky situations and can be very egotistical as seen when leaving the island that Polyphemus lives on, saying that his name is Odysseus and he is the best.2) Find an example of Ethos, Pathos and/or Logos used in any of the characters’ speeches/dialogue in this book and explain how it is persuasive. A short paragraph of 3-4 sentences should be fine.)When Polyphemus asks where Odysseus’ ship was, Odysseus uses Pathos to try and gain sympathy by telling him that their ship crashed and tries to persuade Polyphemus to let them go and to honor Zeus with good hospitality. This persuades Polyphemus to Greek Society: The Odyssey tells the reader a lot about the customs of Ancient Greek Society and/or values and morals. What you learn about the following in this book? Defend your answer.The relationship between humans and the god and goddesses.The relationship between humans and the god and goddesses is very delicate because the gods can be very easily angered by the humans, as seen when Odysseus blinds Polyphemus and Polyphemus prays to Poseidon to either make sure Odysseus does not return home or makes it home with none of his men.The pitfalls of temptation. As seen in the Land of the Lotus Eaters, the men who were tempted into eating the lotus flowers had forgotten about everything they’ve ever known, which was terrible for Odysseus who had to go and retrieve them from the island.Hubris and humilityWhen Odysseus is leaving Polyphemus, he has a brief episode of hubris when he tells Polyphemus he was just conquered by the great Odysseus who is the best.     Book Notes—Book 10 – “The Grace of the Witch”Magic & PowerDiscuss the significance of each one:Bag of WindThe Bag of Wind was given to Odysseus by Aiolos to aid in going home faster, but did not work because it brought Odysseus right back to AioliaWineWhen the men join Kirke to eat, she gives them wine, in which she slips a drug in it that makes them slow and want to stay, and then she turns them into pigs.MoluMolu is an herb that protects someone from Kirke’s magic and spells, which is how Odysseus is able to make Kirke turn the men back into humans.What special abilities does Aiolos have?Aiolos had the ability to control the wind, which is how he is able to give Odysseus the Bag of Wind.How is Kirke magical?Kirke is magical because of her use of potions and her magic wand, in which she used to turn the men into pigs.Study Questions1) How long is Odysseus with Kirke?Odysseus and his men stay with Kirke for 1 year.2) List the steps in Kirke’s plan for Odysseus.Odysseus has to go to the land of DeathHe has to hear a prophecy from Teirêsias3) Find an example of Ethos, Pathos and/or Logos used in any of the characters’ speeches/dialogue in this book.  Please identify a point in the plot (refer to specific line numbers) and describe. A short paragraph of 3-4 sentences should be fine.)In lines 478-484 when Eurýlokhos was trying to persuade the men not to go with Odysseus to Kirke’s hall, he uses Logos to make them see that Kirke turned the men into animals and that the men who had went with Odysseus to Polyphemus’ cave had died because Odysseus was foolish.SettingList the various settings, in order, that Odysseus describes. Then, tell me (briefly) about the inhabitants of each. In the beginning of the book, Odysseus is in Aiolia, and island surrounded by walls on the cliffside. It is inhabited by King Aiolos and his twelve children – six boys and six girls. Then, he travels to Lamos, where there is a bay and mountainous walls of stone that make a valley. Lamos is inhabited by Antiphatês the Laistrygon and his daughter, but Odysseus and his men leave almost immediately after Antiphatês eats some of Odysseus’ men. From there, they end up in Aiaia, and island inhabited by Kirke.ConflictWhat is the conflict Odysseus is struggling with on pages 176-178?The conflict Odysseus is dealing with is whether to stay or not. Odysseus decides to stay, even though the men on the ship want to return home.List THREE Epithets (for different characters).Please be sure to tell me who the character is!”The wind king” (King Aiolos)”Son of La?rtês and the gods of old” (Odysseus)”The loveliest of goddesses” (Kirke)      Book Notes—Book 11 – “A Gathering of Shades”Literary DeviceRefer to your definition of an epic. How does book 11 fulfill the requirements of an epic?Book 11 is a long narrative that tells the stories of legendary heroes, following the definition of an epic exactly.Fun Stuff: Please refer to your archetype packet and hero’s journey handout. What stage are we in?The Innermost CaveWhat archetypes do you see? Identify THREE, and provide the examples.The Unfaithful Wife is Klytaimestra because of her affair Aegísthos while she was still married to Agamemnon.The Star-Crossed lovers are Epikastê and her son Oidipous because they had married each other with much disapproval and had ended tragically.Supernatural Intervention occurs when Odysseus has conversations with all of the spirits. Many of them give him answers and wise words to help him on his journey.Shady shades!Give a brief description of the following shades:Choose any TWO shades that Odysseus sees (from lines 260 to the end of the book), and provide the brief story of him/her/them.Odysseus sees Epikastê, the mother of Oidipous, who married her own son. Oidipous kept the throne in Thebes, but his mother had died and was now in the underworld, hanging on a noose. Odysseus also sees Agamemnon, who was killed by Aegísthos and Klytaimestra. Agamemnon was married to Klytaimestra but she had an affair with Aegísthos and  then they both killed Agamemnon. Later, they were both killed by Orestes, son of Agamemnon out of revenge. Study Questions 1) Who is Elpenor, and what is his request?Eleanor was a member of Odysseus’ crew who died when he got drunk at Kirke’s hall, slept on the roof and died because he fell off. His request is to honor his death with a burial mound.2) What very important warnings does Tiresias give Odysseus?The very important warnings are to not eat Helios; cattle, Odysseus will make it home but all of his men will die and that when he does return home and find trouble.3) What sad, personal loss does Odysseus learn about? Odysseus learns that his mother had died.4) List THREE Epithets (for different characters). Please be sure to tell me who the character is!”Odysseus, master of landways and seaways”(Odysseus)”Unhappy spirit”(Elpenor)”My noble mother”(Antikleía)     Book Notes—Book 12 – “Sea Perils and Defeat”CharacterizationThroughout this book, Odysseus shows that he can be a leader to his men. List 3 different times that he shows this.  When Odysseus told the crew about the seirênês.When he gave them hope and said that he kept his wits while defeating Polyphemus so they can survive anything.When he made them swear not to harm the kine.Motifs and ThemesAt this point, you should see how self-control, restraint, and choices and consequences are concepts that have an important place in the plot. Develop a theme statement surrounding these concepts. (If writing two separate theme statements is easier for you, that is acceptable.)Self-control and restraint are choices you have to make when considering the consequences of what is to come.RhetoricFind examples of Ethos, Pathos and/or Logos on pages 221-222 and explain how it is persuasive. (A short paragraph of 3-4 sentences should be fine.)After all of the bread and wine ran out from their stores, the men were very hungry. Eurýlokhos used pathos to persuade the men into sacrificing a cow and eating the rest  because they were all very hungry. Eurýlokhos also uses logos to persuade them by telling the men that they will be safe since they did sacrifice a cow.Study Questions1) List and briefly describe the several things that Kirke warns Odysseus about.The seirênês who will sing a song and try and lure Odysseus and his men.Amphitritê and the Prowling Rocks which will wreck every ship and crew.Skylla, the twelve-legged, six-headed monster who will eat six men – one for each head.Kharybdis, the monster who spews water and then sucks it in like a whirlpool three times a day.2) Why is Odysseus the only one left at the end of this book?Odysseus is the only man left because while he was sleeping the men had eaten all of the cattle, so Zeus had killed them.     Book Notes—Book 13 – “One More Strange Island”Gifts- XeniaWhat are the parting gifts that Arête gives to Odysseus?Arête gives Odysseus a laundered great cloak, a tunic, a sea chest, loaves and good red wine.Archetypes How does the Mentor live up to her title in this book? (5-6 sentences for this.)The mentor lives up to her title by giving Odysseus information and a different appearance. She tells him where Penelope and Telemakhos are and that he will return home. She gives him the appearance of an old poor man as a disguise and is going to help him get home by going to tell Telemakhos word of his father’s travels and telling Odysseus where to go.The story of Agamemnon comes up again! Why?The story of Agamemnon comes up because when Odysseus was talking with Athena, he said that even though he was gone for so long like Agamemnon, the only blood that will be on the floor when he returns will be that of the suitors.Plot:  What does the conversation between the Athena and Odysseus on pages 237- to the top of 240 show us about Odysseus’ character?The conversation between Odysseus and Athena shows that Odysseus is very quick and decisive because with his new appearance he had made up a character on the spot.Playing Teacher:Imagine you are the teacher and would like to have the students write a short response about the significance of this book. Create an essay/short answer topic/question for your students to write about. (Please feel free to include any directions that will clarify the objectives that you would like the students to meet.)In life, we are all taught many lessons, morals and values. These are all found in the Odyssey with many stories attached to them.  TASK: Find a lesson/moral/value and explain what it is, why is it a lesson/moral/value and how it is exemplified in the text. Use at LEAST one quote and at LEAST three details.

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